How To Use This Site

How To Use This Site

This blog was updated on a daily basis for about two years, with those daily entries ceasing on December 31, 2013. The blog is still active, however, and we hope that people stopping in, who find something lacking, will add to the daily entries.

The blog still receives new posts as well, but now it receives them on items of Wyoming history. That has always been a feature of the blog, but Wyoming's history is rich and there are many items that are not fully covered here, if covered at all. Over time, we hope to remedy that.

You can obtain an entire month's listings by hitting on the appropriate month below, or an individual day by hitting on that calendar date.

We hope you enjoy this site.

Thursday, February 28, 2013

February 29

This date only occurs in Leap Years.

45 BC The first Leap Day was recognized by proclamation of Julius Caesar. Under the old Roman calendar the last day of February was the last day of the year.

1288 Scotland makes it legal for a woman to propose marriage.  See 1912 item for Wyoming.

1912  The Wyoming Tribune published the names of eligible bachelors for the benefit of "matrimonially inclined women".  Things like this were surprisingly common at the time.  The publication on this date is not accidental, as this particular day was associated with "Sadie Hawkins" type events.  Attribution.  Wyoming State Historic Preservation Office.

1929  Grand Teton National Park established by Congress.  This entry seems somewhat inconsistent with an earlier entry made just a few days ago, so this might be the effective date of the establishment of the park, which was smaller at that time as compared to the current park.

1936  Uniformed superintendents of major National Parks served as pall bearors for John W. Meldrum, the first U.S. Commissioner for Yellowstone National Park, at his funeral in Denver.

February 28

1868  Sixteen mules were reported as having been stolen from Ft. Bridger.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1885  F.E. Warren confirmed as Territorial Governor.

1900 Bob Lee arrested in Cripple Creek, Colorado on suspicion of  robbing a Union Pacific train at Wilcox Wyoming the prior year.

1917   Woodrow Wilson releases the contents of the Zimmerman Telegram
After having had it for some time, the United States released the contents of the Zimmerman Telegram which, as we have been following, proposed a German-Mexican alliance in the event of an American entry into World War One.
American public opinion was becoming increasingly hostile to Germany in 1916 and 1917 and it was already hostile to Mexico given the numerous border problems that had being going on for years and the strained relationship with Carranza.  The release of the telegram was one more event that helped push the United States towards going to war with Germany.  In some ways, the telegram confirmed suspicions that were already out there as presence of German military advisors in Mexico was well known and they had taken an active role in advising Mexico's prevailing army.  They had even been in one instance in that role in which Mexican troops had directly engaged American troops.  In recent weeks there's been speculation in the press about German activities in Mexico and Carranza's relationship to Germany.  So, while Zimmerman's suggestion seems outlandish to us in retrospect, to Americans of 1917 it would have seemed to confirm what was already widely suspected, but with details far more ambitious than could have been guessed at previously. 
The Cheyenne Leader for February 28, 1917. Troops to arrive home Friday.

At least according to Major Smoke.

Is that a great name, or what?

And Cuban rebels were destroying sugar.
1918  First train to arrive in Buffalo on the Wyoming Railroad.

1970  First successful in situ oil extraction near Rock Springs.  This process has never been commercial, however.

1977  Legislature passes a new death penalty statute in an attempt to address developments in the law as interpreted by the Federal courts.

Wednesday, February 27, 2013

February 27

1885  F. E. Warren commences his first period as Territorial Governor. This one would be brief, as President Cleveland would remove him from this office in 1886.

1915  Governor Kendrick approves a Workers Compensation act establishing a state maintained Workers Compensation fund.  While heavily litigated, occasionally amended, and often castigated the basic structure of the groundbreaking 1915 act remains today.  Somewhat unique in the US, the Wyoming act created a wholly state administered Workers Compensation system in which workmen surrendered their rights to bring certain workplace civil actions, and employers gave up their common law defenses, so that certain suits that had traditionally been available for personal injury in the workplace were eliminated in favor of a system of insurance, modeled on that pioneered in Imperial Germany.

The system remains exclusively state administered and run today, and is funded by levies on employers, making it one of the few, and perhaps the only, solely state run system in the US today.  Most states use a system that incorporates employer privately purchased Workers Compensation insurance.

1917   The Cheyenne State Leader for February 27, 1917: Cheyenne to Welcome "Border Boys"

Cheyenne's other paper ran the story of returning Guardsmen in bigger headlines.

At the same time, another story assured readers that the US had "plenty" of men and arms. . . a story that would soon prove to be untrue.  And obviously untrue at that.  If the Guard had to have been called up for the near war with Mexico, what made anyone assume we were ready to fight Germany?

And Congress was looking at giving Wilson war powers.
The Wyoming Tribune for February 27, 1917: Reception for the National Guard planned

In Cheyenne plans were well underway to welcome the boys back home.

But you have to wonder why? The way things were going, why the President was even demobilizing the Guard is a bit of a mystery.  War was pretty clearly around the corner, and Congress was upset that Wilson wasn't being aggressive enough with Germany

1933  Malcolm Wallop born in New York City.  He was U.S. Senator from Wyoming from 1977 to 1995.

1936   John Meldrum died.  He had been Yellowstone National Park's first Commissioner, serving from 1894 to 1935.

1965  Flynn Robinson became the University of Wyoming's leading scorer.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1973     Members of the American Indian Movement (AIM) occupied Wounded Knee, S.D.

1986  The Worland House added to the National Registry of Historic Places.


1943  Bishop Count Konrad von Preysing, Catholic Bishop of Berlin, made another in a series of outspoken attacks on Nazi rule. In a pastoral letter issued throughout Germany he protested against totalitarianism, the execution of hostages and the Jewish persecution, stating "It is a Divine principle that the life of an innocent individual, whether an unborn child or an aged person, is sacred, and that the innocent shall not be punished with the guilty, or in place of the guilty. Neither the individual nor the community can create a law against this."  Bishop von Preysing had gone on record early about his opinions on the Nazis, having declared "We have fallen into the hands of criminals and fools" when they came to power, and in 1940 he'd ordered that prayers be said throughout his diocese for arrested Lutheran ministers.  He'd later go on to decry the German Communist postwar who declared that he was an "agent" of "American Imperialism".  He died in 1950.

1991     President George H.W. Bush announced the end of the Persian Gulf War declaring that the allies would suspend combat operations at midnight.

1998     Britain's House of Lords agreed to end 1,000 years of male preference by giving a monarch's first-born daughter the same claim to the throne as a first-born son.

Tuesday, February 26, 2013

February 26

1846 William "Buffalo Bill" Cody, born in Scott County, Iowa.

1917  Governor John B. Kendrick resigned to enter the United States Senate. Attribution:  On This Day.

Kendrick was a true Western character and stands apart on those regards from many of Wyoming's early politicians.  He was a Texan who had left school after 7th grade to become a cowboy and arrived in Wyoming with a heard of cattle in 1879.  Having come up on a trail drive he stayed on in Wyoming and became a ranch foreman.  Marrying his employer's daughter, he invested in a series of ranches and did well enough to ultimately invest in a bank as well.
In 1909 he became president of the very powerful Wyoming Stock Growers Association and entered the legislature the following year as a Democrat.  That party affiliation likely disadvantaged him when he ran for the Senate in 1913 but that did not hurt him when the Progressive wave began to sweep that party and he became Governor in 1915.  In a move you could not do now, he ran for Senate the following year and won, and hence his resignation on this date.  He occupied that position until his death in 1933.  He was inducted into the Cowboy Hall of Fame in the 1950s, a honor he no doubt deserved.

1917  Secretary of State Frank L. Houx became the acting governor.  He would fill out Gov. Kendrick's term and serve until 1919. .Attribution:  On This Day.

Houx was a businessman with mixed interests who was from Missouri but whom had relocated to  Cody Wyoming in 1895.  He entered politics from there and was elected Secretary of State, as a Democrat, in 1910.  He was serving in that position when Governor Kendrick resigned which, under Wyoming's constitution, made him the Governor at that point.  He ran for office in his own right in 1918 but lost to Robert D. Carey, the son of Joseph Carey.
1917  President Wilson addresses Congress on the safety of merchant ships.
It was turning out to be a busy Monday for President Wilson.

Having just learned of the Zimmerman Note, he addressed Congress regarding the safety of merchant ships.

 USS Mount Vernon, an armed merchant vessel, undergoing repairs in 1919 after having been damaged in a U-boat attack in 1918.
Gentlemen of the Congress:
I have again asked the privilege of addressing you because we are moving through critical times during which it seems to me to be my duty to keep in close touch with the Houses of Congress, so that neither counsel nor action shall run at cross purposes between us.
On the third of February I officially informed you of the sudden and unexpected action of the Imperial German Government in declaring its intention to disregard the promises it had made to this Government in April last and undertake immediate submarine operations against all commerce, whether of belligerents or of neutrals, that should seek to approach Great Britain and Ireland, the Atlantic coasts of Europe, or the harbors of the eastern Mediterranean, and to conduct those operations without regard to the established restrictions of international practice, without regard to any considerations of humanity even which might interfere with their object. That policy was forthwith put into practice. It has now been in active execution for nearly four weeks.
Its practical results are not yet fully disclosed. The commerce of other neutral nations is suffering severely, but not, perhaps, very much more severely than it was already suffering before the first of February, when the new policy of the Imperial Government was put into operation. We have asked the cooperation of the other neutral governments to prevent these depredations, but so far none of them has thought it wise to join us in any common course of action. Our own commerce has suffered, is suffering, rather in apprehension than in fact, rather because so many of our ships are timidly keeping to their home ports than because American ships have been sunk.
Two American vessels have been sunk, the Housatonic and the Lyman M. Law . The case of the Housatonic, which was carrying food-stuffs consigned to a London firm, was essentially like the case of the Fry , in which, it will be recalled, the German Government admitted its liability for damages, and the lives of the crew, as in the case of the Fry , were safeguarded with reasonable care. The case of the Law , which was carrying lemon-box staves to Palermo, disclosed a ruthlessness of method which deserves grave condemnation, but was accompanied by no circumstances which might not have been expected at any time in connection with the use of the submarine against merchantmen as the German Government has used it.
In sum, therefore, the situation we find ourselves in with regard to the actual conduct of the German submarine warfare against commerce and its effects upon our own ships and people is substantially the same that it was when I addressed you on the third of February, except for the tying up of our shipping in our own ports because of the unwillingness of our shipowners to risk their vessels at sea without insurance or adequate protection, and the very serious congestion of our commerce which has resulted, a congestion which is growing rapidly more and more serious every day. This in itself might presently accomplish, in effect, what the new German submarine orders were meant to accomplish, so far as we are concerned. We can only say, therefore, that the overt act which I have ventured to hope the German commanders would in fact avoid has not occurred.
But, while this is happily true, it must be admitted that there have been certain additional indications and expressions of purpose on the part of the German press and the German authorities which have increased rather than lessened the impression that, if our ships and our people are spared, it will be because of fortunate circumstances or because the commanders of the German submarines which they may happen to encounter exercise an unexpected discretion and restraint rather than because of the instructions under which those commanders are acting. It would be foolish to deny that the situation is fraught with the gravest possibilities and dangers. No thoughtful man can fail to see that the necessity for definite action may come at any time, if we are in fact, and not in word merely, to defend our elementary rights as a neutral nation. It would be most imprudent to be unprepared.
I cannot in such circumstances be unmindful of the fact that the expiration of the term of the present Congress is immediately at hand, by constitutional limitation; and that it would in all likelihood require an unusual length of time to assemble and organize the Congress which is to succeed it. I feel that I ought, in view of that fact, to obtain from you full and immediate assurance of the authority which I may need at any moment to exercise. No doubt I already possess that authority without special warrant of law, by the plain implication of my constitutional duties and powers; but I prefer, in the present circumstances, not to act upon general implication. I wish to feel that the authority and the power of the Congress are behind me in whatever it may become necessary for me to do. We are jointly the servants of the people and must act together and in their spirit, so far as we can divine and interpret it.
No one doubts what it is our duty to do. We must defend our commerce and the lives of our people in the midst of the present trying circumstances, with discretion but with clear and steadfast purpose. Only the method and the extent remain to be chosen, upon the occasion, if occasion should indeed arise. Since it has unhappily proved impossible to safeguard our neutral rights by diplomatic means against the unwarranted infringements they are suffering at the hands of Germany, there may be no recourse but to armed neutrality, which we shall know how to maintain and for which there is abundant American precedent.
It is devoutly to be hoped that it will not be necessary to put armed force anywhere into action. The American people do not desire it, and our desire is not different from theirs. I am sure that they will understand the spirit in which I am now acting, the purpose I hold nearest my heart and would wish to exhibit in everything I do. I am anxious that the people of the nations at war also should understand and not mistrust us. I hope that I need give no further proofs and assurances than I have already given throughout nearly three years of anxious patience that I am the friend of peace and mean to preserve it for America so long as I am able. I am not now proposing or contemplating war or any steps that need lead to it. I merely request that you will accord me by your own vote and definite bestowal the means and the authority to safeguard in practice the right of a great people who are at peace and who are desirous of exercising none but the rights of peace to follow the pursuits of peace in quietness and good will,—rights recognized time out of mind by all the civilized nations of the world. No course of my choosing or of theirs will lead to war. War can come only by the wilful acts and aggressions of others.
You will understand why I can make no definite proposals or forecasts of action now and must ask for your supporting authority in the most general terms. The form in which action may become necessary cannot yet be foreseen. I believe that the people will be willing to trust me to act with restraint, with prudence, and in the true spirit of amity and good faith that they have themselves displayed throughout these trying months; and it is in that belief that I request that you will authorize me to supply our merchant ships with defensive arms, should that become necessary, and with the means of using them, and to employ any other instrumentalities or methods that may be necessary and adequate to protect our ships and our people in their legitimate and peaceful pursuits on the seas. I request also that you will grant me at the same time, along with the powers I ask, a sufficient credit to enable me to provide adequate means of protection where they are lacking, including adequate insurance against the present war risks.
I have spoken of our commerce and of the legitimate errands of our people on the seas, but you will not be misled as to my main thought, the thought that lies beneath these phrases and gives them dignity and weight. It is not of material interests merely that we are thinking. It is, rather, of fundamental human rights, chief of all the right of life itself. I am thinking, not only of the rights of Americans to go and come about their proper business by way of the sea, but also of something much deeper, much more fundamental than that. I am thinking of those rights of humanity without which there is no civilization. My theme is of those great principles of compassion and of protection which mankind has sought to throw about human lives, the lives of non-combatants, the lives of men who are peacefully at work keeping the industrial processes of the world quick and vital, the lives of women and children and of those who supply the labor which ministers to their sustenance. We are speaking of no selfish material rights but of rights which our hearts support and whose foundation is that righteous passion for justice upon which all law, all structures alike of family, of state, and of mankind must rest, as upon the ultimate base of our existence and our liberty. I cannot imagine any man with American principles at his heart hesitating to defend these things.

1927  Legislature established the Historical Landmark Commission.Attribution:  On This Day.

1929 President Calvin Coolidge signs an Executive Order establishing the Grand Teton National Park in Wyoming.

 Grand Teton in 1888.

1970   South Pass City added to the National Register of Historic Places.

1970  Granger Stage Station added to the National Register of Historic Places.

1981   Groundbreaking held for Herschler Building, Cheyenne.

2009  Sheridan's Green Hairstreak adopted as state butterfly.

Monday, February 25, 2013

February 25

1858  Ft. Thompson abandoned. The post near the present location of Lander had only been in existence since October 1857.

1868   Cheyenne passed an ordinance against gambling and disorderly houses.  Attribution:  On This Day.

1913 The 16th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, giving Congress the power to levy and collect income taxes, went into effect.

1919  Photographs were taken of the Student Army Training Corps at the University of Wyoming.  The SATC was the predecessor of the Reserve Officer Training Corps.  The students here are depicted using the Krag rifle, which was obsolete at the time, but which was apparently seeing at least some training applications of this type.

1920  Woodrow Wilson signed the Minerals Leasing Act of 1920. This act created the modern system of leasing Federal oil and gas  and coal interests, which previously had been subject to claim under the Mining Law of 1872.  

 Grass Creek Wyoming, 1916

The extent to which this revolutionized the oil, gas and coal industries in economic terms can hardly be overestimated.  Prior to 1920, these fossil fuels could be exploited via a simple mining claim, and the land itself could be patented after the claim was "proved up."  The 1920 act ended this practice as to these resources (the 1872 Act continues on for other minerals, in a very modified form, to the present day).  The leasing system meant that the resources never left the public domain in absolute terns, and the payment of the lease was a huge economic boon to the state and Federal government.

1925   House Joint Memorial No. 4 approved "Memorializing the Congress of the United States to set aside Old Fort Laramie and Old Fort Bridger and Independence Rock as Historic Reserves."  Attribution:  On This Day. 

1941   The state's conscientious objectors were listed.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1961  The legislature approved the purchase of the grounds of Ft. Fetterman.

1963  A 4.3 magnitude earthquake occurred near Fort Washakie.

1975  The First United Methodist Church in Cheyenne added to the National Registry of Historic Places.

2009   U.S. Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar cancelled leases on federal land for oil-shale development in Colorado, Utah and Wyoming.  Attribution:  On This Day.


1945 Turkey declares war on Germany.

1948 Communist coup takes power in Czechoslovakia.

1956 Nikita Khrushchev criticized the late Josef Stalin in a speech before a Communist Party congress in Moscow.

Sunday, February 24, 2013

February 24

1803  The principal that the U.S. Supreme Court could rule upon the constitutionality of a statute established in Marbury v Madison.

1821  Mexico declared independence from Spain.

1871 Novelist Caroline Lockhart born in Eagle Point, Illinois.  She moved to Cody in 1904 and became a successful novelist thereafter.  She was an ardent opponent of Prohibition. She lived principally in Cody after 1904, but did have a very brief period of residence in Denver, and she also ranched in Montana.

1875  Territorial Governor Campbell appointed U.S. Third Assistant Secretary of State.  He would resign as Territorial Governor on March 1.

1897   Wyoming, accepted a grant of one mile square of land from the Wind River Reservation for the hot springs at what is now Thermopolis.  Attribution:  On This Day.

1914  La Bonte Hotel opens in Douglas. This is the second date I have for this event, so one of the two dates is incorrect.  Attribution.  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1916   The Cheyenne Men's Club discussed whether Prohibition "does or does not prohibit".  I'm not sure how to take that, but apparently with the looming move towards Prohibition coming on, they took up the topic. Attribution:  Wyoming State Historic Preservation Office.

1917 British authorities gave Walter H. Page, the U.S. ambassador to Britain, a copy of the "Zimmerman Note".

1917   The Cheyenne State Leader for February 24, 1917. Where will they work?
Today an age old problem was addressed for returning troops.

Where are they going to work?

It wasn't until World War Two that legislation guaranteeing a soldier's right to return to his former employment existed.  Up until that time, they just took their chances.  Now, Guardsmen returning to the state would be hoping to return to employment, assuming that they weren't returning to school.  Fortunately for them, the state was in a boom and there was a lot of work.  In other areas of the country Guardsmen hadn't been so fortunate.

In other new, Governor Kendrick was on his way to be Senator Kendrick and receiving send offs.  An American missionary was amongst those who had recently gone down at sea at German hands.  Food was a big concern in the UK and the US.  And Frederick Funston was laying in state in San Francisco.
1941  115th Cavalry Regiment, Wyoming National Guard, inducted into Federal Service.

Saturday, February 23, 2013

February 23

1540   Spanish explorer Francisco Vasquez de Coronado began his unsuccessful search for the fabled Seven Cities of Gold in the American Southwest. Antonio de Mendoza, Viceroy of Mexico, sent Francisco Coronado overland to search for the fabled Seven Cities of Cibola in present day New Mexico.  A dramatic mounted exploration, to say the least.

1836  The siege of the Alamo began.  Attribution:  On This Day.

1847     U.S. troops under Gen. Zachary Taylor defeated Mexican general Santa Anna at the Battle of Buena Vista in Mexico.

1905  A creamery in Cheyenne began selling pasteurized milk.

The benefits of pasteurization, and the feature of a local creamery, are things that are almost wholly forgotten today.  Today, most milk is transported quite some distance before it is sold in a local store, but as recently as the 1950s, most significantly sized towns in Wyoming had a creamery, that being a local business that bought raw milk, pasteurized it, and sold it.  Here's an example of such a (former) facility in Casper.

Pasteurization, a process by which a liquid is heated and then rapidly cooled, was a major innovation in food safety, and is commonly used today for most dairy products and some beer.  The ability of a local facility to sell pasteurized milk was no doubt a major boon for local consumers in Cheyenne.  Now, however, there's a movement to sell certain products directly from farms and outside the food safety system.  Raw milk isn't something that a person usually encounters in Wyoming (unless a person lives on a farm or ranch that actually has a dairy cow, which few do) but it's a growing movement nationwide.  Not too surprisingly, there have been some health issues associated with it.

1917   The National Vocational Act (Smith Hughes Act) signed into law.
The National Vocational Act was the first American law to provide a direct Federal role in high school education.  It was signed into law on this day, in 1917.
Student in technical high school, 1916.
The act was aimed at students who were going to work directly on farms but its scope was broader than that and it had the support of Labor, which helped cause it to pass.  It's stated purpose was to support those "who have entered upon or who are preparing to enter upon the work of the farm" and funding was provided for that goal.  It also included mandated the creation of a Board of Vocational Education in each state, which lead to some districts combining their existing board with that purpose and others having a separate board just for that purpose.
 Girls in automobile mechanics class, Central High, Washington D. C., 1927.
The act was a really significant development in terms of the evolution of the relationship between the states and the Federal government. There had been prior acts on the topic of education, including a vocational act that this was a successor to, but this was the first Federal provision to directly impose requirements upon a state in regards to education and the first to provide Federal funding to the states.  In these regards, this was a fairly revolutionary Progressive Era step and its one that lead to later broader steps, perhaps culminating in the creation of the US Department of Education in 1979. We are now so used to the concept of that cabinet level entity existing that its hard to imagine that its a relatively recent arrival in terms of Federal agencies.  It's start can be seen to exist with the passage of the Smith Hughes Act into law in this day, one hundred years ago as of this posting.
Seal of the Department of Education.
Every school district in Wyoming continues to have at least some vocational training.  Natrona County has a completely separate high school campus, recently built, for scientific and vocational training.

1941  Blizzard conditions stalled traffic in the state.  This was, of course, in the pre 4x4 days.  Prior to World War Two 4x4 vehicles were almost unheard of and were limited to industrial vehicles. Almost every vehicle was a rear wheel drive 2x4.

1948  An earthquake in Yellowstone was felt regionally.

1950  A special session of the legislature called to deal with the problem of grasshopper infestation concluded.

1969  Gov. Hathaway signed into law a State severance tax bill. The bill had been extremely controversial, with there being strong arguments by the opposition that passing it would cause Wyoming's extractive industries to greatly reduce their activity. The arguments failed to stop the bill, and the severance tax did not greatly impact the extractive industries.  Today, Wyoming's is nearly entirely funded by severance taxes.

1985  The Bison adopted as the state mammal.

1990  First Day of Issue Ceremony  for the stamp based on Conrad Schwiering's painting High Mountain Meadows held in Cheyenne.

Friday, February 22, 2013

February 22

1847 General Santa Anna surrounds the outnumbered forces of U.S. General Zachary Taylor at the Angostura Pass in Mexico and demands an immediate surrender. Taylor declines the offer to surrender.

1897  President Cleveland issues a proclamation establishing the Big Horn National Forest.  Attribution:  On This Day.

1899  The 1st Nebraska U.S. Volunteer Infantry and the Wyoming Battalion, volunteers, engaged Philippine insurgents near Deposito.  The action commenced at 0615 when the Wyoming Battalion, which deployed about two hours earlier, encountered Philippine insurgents and opened fire.  The action was sharp with results being generally inconclusive.

1913  Twelfth Legislative session concluded.

1917   The Cheyenne State Leader for February 22, 1917: Denver Guard Protest "Silly"
People were getting embarrassed about the snit over the location for the demobilization of the Colorado National Guard.

And the importation of booze from "wet" states to "dry" ones was getting Federal attention.

Pershing's rise continued, in the wake of the death of Gen. Funston.  And a terrible crime happened in Cheyenne.
1918  Montana's legislature passes a Sedition Law that severely restricts freedom of speech and assembly.

1919  Fifteenth Legislative session concluded.

1941  Twenty Sixth Legislative session concluded.

2012  High winds closed numerous roads around Wyoming, including:

I-80 Corridor
    Rock Springs - I-80 between Rock Springs and Point of Rocks - EASTBOUND    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:43am
    Patrick Draw - I-80 between Point of Rocks and Exit 142, Bitter Creek - EASTBOUND    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:43am
    Patrick Draw - I-80 between Exit 142, Bitter Creek and Exit 158, Tipton Rd - EASTBOUND    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:43am
    Wamsutter - I-80 between Exit 158, Tipton Rd and Wamsutter - EASTBOUND    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:43am
    Wamsutter - I-80 between Wamsutter and Exit 187, Creston Jct - EASTBOUND    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:43am
    Rawlins - I-80 between Exit 187, Creston Jct and Rawlins - EASTBOUND    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:46am
    Rawlins - I-80 between Rawlins and Exit 235, Walcott Jct    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:46am
    Elk Mountain - I-80 between Exit 235, Walcott Jct and Exit 255, WY 72    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:46am
    Elk Mountain - I-80 between Exit 255, WY 72 and Exit 267, Wagonhound Rd    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:46am
    Arlington - I-80 between Exit 267, Wagonhound Rd and Arlington    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:46am
    Arlington - I-80 between Arlington and Exit 279, Cooper Cove Rd    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:46am
    Laramie - I-80 between Exit 279, Cooper Cove Rd and Laramie    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:46am
    Laramie - I-80 between Laramie and Exit 323, Happy Jack Rd - WESTBOUND    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:46am
    Laramie - I-80 between Exit 323, Happy Jack Rd and Exit 335, Buford - WESTBOUND    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:46am
    Cheyenne - I-80 between Exit 335, Buford and Exit 342, Harriman Rd - WESTBOUND    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:46am
    Cheyenne - I-80 between Exit 342, Harriman and Cheyenne - WESTBOUND    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:46am

I-25 Corridor
    Chugwater - I-25 between Exit 29, Whitaker Rd and Chugwater    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:49am
    Chugwater - I-25 between Chugwater and Exit 73, WY 34    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:49am
    Wheatland - I-25 between Exit 73, WY 34 and Wheatland    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:49am

Non-Interstate Routes
    US 26
        Jackson - US 26/89/191 between Moose and Moran Jct    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:43am
    US 30
        Rock Springs - I-80 between Rock Springs and Point of Rocks - EASTBOUND    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:43am
        Patrick Draw - I-80 between Point of Rocks and Exit 142, Bitter Creek - EASTBOUND    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:43am
        Patrick Draw - I-80 between Exit 142, Bitter Creek and Exit 158, Tipton Rd - EASTBOUND    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:43am
        Wamsutter - I-80 between Exit 158, Tipton Rd and Wamsutter - EASTBOUND    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:43am
        Wamsutter - I-80 between Wamsutter and Exit 187, Creston Jct - EASTBOUND    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:43am
        Rawlins - I-80 between Exit 187, Creston Jct and Rawlins - EASTBOUND    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:46am
        Rawlins - I-80 between Rawlins and Exit 235, Walcott Jct    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:46am
        Medicine Bow - US 30/287 between Hanna Jct and Medicine Bow    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:46am
        Medicine Bow - US 30/287 between Medicine Bow and Rock River    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:46am
        Laramie - US 30/287 between Rock River and WY 34    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:46am
        Laramie - I-80 between Laramie and Exit 323, Happy Jack Rd - WESTBOUND    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:46am
        Laramie - I-80 between Exit 323, Happy Jack Rd and Exit 335, Buford - WESTBOUND    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:46am
        Cheyenne - I-80 between Exit 335, Buford and Exit 342, Harriman Rd - WESTBOUND    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:46am
        Cheyenne - I-80 between Exit 342, Harriman and Cheyenne - WESTBOUND    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:46am
    US 87
        Chugwater - I-25 between Exit 29, Whitaker Rd and Chugwater    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:49am
        Chugwater - I-25 between Chugwater and Exit 73, WY 34    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:49am
        Wheatland - I-25 between Exit 73, WY 34 and Wheatland    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:49am
    US 89
        Jackson - US 26/89/191 between Moose and Moran Jct    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:43am
    US 191
        Rock Springs - US 191 between the Utah State Line and I-80    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:43am
        Jackson - US 26/89/191 between Moose and Moran Jct    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:43am
    US 287
        Laramie - US 30/287 between Rock River and WY 34    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:46am
        Medicine Bow - US 30/287 between Medicine Bow and Rock River    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:46am
        Medicine Bow - US 30/287 between Hanna Jct and Medicine Bow    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:46am
        Rawlins - I-80 between Rawlins and Exit 235, Walcott Jct    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:46am
        Rawlins - US 287 / WY 789 between Rawlins and Mile Marker 23    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:46am
    WY 34
        Laramie - WY 34 between Bosler and the Platte/Albany Cty Line    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:46am
        Wheatland - WY 34 between the Platte/Albany Cty Line and I-25    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:49am
    WY 130
        Laramie - WY 130 between Mile Marker 35, Westbound Closure Gate and Centennial    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:46am
        Laramie - WY 130 between Centennial and Laramie    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:46am
    WY 210
        Laramie - WY 210 between Curt Gowdy State Park and I-80    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:46am
    WY 321
        Chugwater - WY 321 between Chugwater and I-25    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:49am
    WY 789
        Rawlins - I-80 between Exit 187, Creston Jct and Rawlins - EASTBOUND    
Feb. 22, 2012 06:46am
        Rawlins - US 287 / WY 789 between Rawlins and Mile Marker 23    

Thursday, February 21, 2013

February 21

1883  Post Office established in Beulah.

1900  A military funeral held for Chief Washakie.

1903  Wyoming establishes a gift and estate tax.  Wyoming still has such a tax, but it only applies at very substantial income levels.

1925  The Legislature passed a $.02.5 gasoline tax.  While this sounds quite small, in terms of the era, 1925, it was actually a fairly significant tax.  Contrary to the common assumption, in real terms gasoline of the era was quite expensive, and automobiles, which were already common very expensive to purchase and own.  Attribution: Wyoming State Historical Society.

Since first entering writing this paragraph, the news this year (2013) is that the Legislature will likely raise the gasoline tax an additional $0.10.

Wednesday, February 20, 2013

Lex Anteinternet: Blog Mirror: The Blizzard of 1949

Lex Anteinternet: Blog Mirror: The Blizzard of 1949: Nebraska report. Wyoming Storms and Blizzards. The North Forty News. Disasters. The Blizzard of 49. Blizzard traps the City of San F...

February 20

1792     President George Washington signed an act creating the U.S. Post Office.The Constitution requires the Federal Government to deliver the mail, and this was a vital government service in the much of the nation's history.  Now, with UPS and FedEx, it's easy to forget the extent to which this service mattered more to many people than any other governmental service at one time, and for many people, it was likely the only contact with the Federal Government that they ever had.

Since writing the paragraph immediately above, the impacts of other services, and most particularly of the internet, have made the Post Office's position sufficiently precarious that Saturday mail delivery is scheduled to be eliminated.

1911  Gov. Carey signed bill carving Lincoln County out of Uinta County.:  Attribution:  On This Day.

1917   The Cheyenne State Leader for February 20, 1917: The news about Gen. Funston hits the headlines and Colorado protests a Wyoming demobilization.
The news of Gen. Funston's death hit the front page of the paper the day after.

And Colorado was upset about Colorado National Guardsmen being sent to Ft. D. A. Russell for demobilization, rather than a location in their home state.

Dogs were barred entry into the state by Governor Kendrick due to concerns over rabies.

1919  The  Legislature appropriated $2,500 for placing markers along the Oregon Trail.  A good example of these very first markers can be seen in the bottom photograph here.  The top example, featuring a bronze medallion, is a somewhat later one which was placed by a commission.  The monument itself in the top photo is not original, but the 1914 State of Wyoming one is fully original.

1923  The Legislature experienced a 56 hour "day" in a questionable legislature trick designed to keep the clock from winding up on the session. This trick has been repeated since then, but this one was the record.

1949  The last day of the Blizzard of 1949, which was actually a series of blizzards that occurred in rapid succession.

1957  Gov. Milward Simposn signs a state Civil Rights act.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1980 Alice Roosevelt Longworth, the first child of Theodore Roosevelt, his only child by his first wife Alice, and the last of his living children, died.

1982  The University of Wyoming's Arena Auditorium opened.

Tuesday, February 19, 2013

February 19

1864  William F. Cody joined the 7th Volunteer Kansas Cavalry.

1887  The final run of the Black Hills stage left  Cheyenne.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1901  A bill prohibiting gambling signed into law.

1915  The Governor signed to acts pertaining to improvements at the state capitol consisting of the addition of wings onto the capitol building.  One was to approve the construction, and another to authorize a property tax to pay for it.

1915  The Natrona County Tribune merges into the Wyoming Weekly Review.

1917  The State Highway Commission created by the signature of the Governor of an act approving it. 

It's odd to think of Wyoming lacking a Highway Department but up until this date in 1917, it did.  That was common at the time as most vehicular transportation remained strictly local.  However, that would begin to change with the Federal Aid Road Act of 1916, which provided funds, for the first time, to state highway departments in one of the "progressive" policies of the Wilson Administration.
The activities of the Commission would be modest but growing throughout its early years.  Limited winter plowing commenced in 1923 and then it began in earnest in 1929.  In 1991 the highway department became the Wyoming Department of Transportation, which it remains.

On this date in 1917 a shock happened to the nation.  The general who Woodrow Wilson already had in mind for an American expeditionary force in Europe, should the US enter the Great War, which was becoming increasingly likely, died.

And with his death, it truly seemed that an era had really passed.

 Gen. Frederick Funston, next to driver, in 1906.
Funston was a hero and a legend.  He'd risen to high command on the strength of his military achievements without being a West Point graduate.  He was truly an exception to the rules.

Funston was born in Ohio in 1865 and in some ways did not show early promise in life.  He was a very small and slight (at first) man, standing only 5'5" and weighing only 120 lbs upon reaching adulthood.  He aspired as a youth to the military, after growing up in Kansas, but he was rejected by West Point due to his small size.  He thereafter attended the University of Kansas for three years but did not graduate.  Following that he worked for awhile for the Santa Fe Railroad before becoming a reporter in Kansas City in 1890.

Only after a year he left reporting and went to work for the Department of Agriculture as a researcher in an era when that was an adventuresome occupation.  In 1896, however, Funston left that to join the Cuban insurrection against Spain in Cuba.

  Funston as a Cuban guerilla.
As most Americans spending any time in Cuba at the time experienced, he came down with malaria while serving the Cuban revolution.  Returning to United States weighing only 95 lbs he found himself back in the United States just in time to secure a commission with the 20th Kansas Infantry as it was raised to fight in the Spanish American War.  
"Funston's Fighting Kansans" in the Philippines.
The 20th Kansas didn't fight in Cuba, it fought in the Philippines.  Funston served there heroically and received the Medal of Honor, and found himself promoted to the rank of Brigadier General in the Regular Army at age 35, a remarkable rise contrary to the usual story of military advancement and more reminiscent of the Civil War than anything thereafter.  Following his service in the Philippines, however, he fell into a period of controversy due to aggressively pro military action comments he made in the United States.
He was stationed at the Presidio in San Francisco upon his return to the United States and was there at the time of the 1906 earthquake.  He controversially declared martial law to attempt to combat the fire and looters and in fact authorized the shooting of looters.  Following that he was stationed again in the Philippines and Hawaii.  In 1914 he was placed in command of the Southern Department of the Army and was in command of the US forces in Vera Cruz and thereafter in Mexico under Pershing.

Funston and his family at the Presidio.
On this date in 1917 he was relaxing at the St. Anthony Hotel in San Antonio Texas when he suffered a massive stroke and died.  He was only 51 years of age but he had put on a tremendous amount of weight in recent years. Indeed, his weight had prevented him from active field service by the time of the Punitive Expedition, but the fact of his death in this fashion would suggest an undiagnosed high blood pressure condition, something that was commonly fatal in that era.
The Laramie Boomerang for February 19, 1917: Two Wyoming Battalions To Leave Border as Cowboys cross it.

Two Battalions of the Wyoming Infantry were to be on their way home, the Boomerang reported.

And Theodore Roosevelt was planning to reprise his Spanish American War role if the US went to war with Germany.  Well. . . .Woodrow Wilson might have a say in that.

And the situation in Mexico was apparently getting complicated by a private body of cowboy militia crossing the border in reprisal for the recent death of their fellows.

Finally, the  Boomerang reported the situation with Germany as "hopeful". 
The Wyoming Tribune for February 19, 1917: Colorado and Wyoming National Guard headed for Ft. D. A. Russell for Demobilization

News came on this Monday (in 1917) that indeed, Wyoming and Colorado state troops were headed home, or at least to Ft. D. A. Russell.

A general with a Cheyenne connection, John J. Pershing, now a national hero and the recent commander of the Punitive Expedition, came out for universal military training.  That was  big movement, of course, at the time.

And John B. Kendrick was on his way to the U.S. Senate, finishing up his time as Governor by signing the bills  that had passed the recent legislative session.

Miss Elanor Eakin Carr's engagement to Howard P. Okie, son of J. B. Okie of Lost Cabin, the legendary sheepman of the Lost Cabin area.  He'd take over his father's mercantile interest that year, but the marriage would not be a  long one.  He died in 1920
1921  Sixteenth state legislature adjourned.

1927  Nineteenth state legislature adjourned.

1942 Franklin D. Roosevelt signs Executive Order 9066, authorizing the removal of any or all people from military areas "as deemed necessary or desirable."  This would lead to internment camps, including Heart Mountain near Cody.

 Map showing interment camps and other aspects of the exclusion of ethnic Japanese from the Pacific Coast during World War Two.

1945 The US government imposes a midnight curfew on all places of entertainment.

1986  Vice President George Bush addressed the legislature.

1990  Budget session of fiftieth state legislature convened.

1996  Budget session of the fifty third state legislature convened.

Monday, February 18, 2013

February 18

Today is Presidents Day for 2013.

The holiday originally commemorated George Washington's birthday, but was expanded later to honor all Presidents.  It is a Federal Holiday.

1861  The Treaty of Ft. Wise, Kansas is signed by the Arapaho and Cheyenne, in which they gave up territory in Colorado between the North Platte and Arkansas Rivers in exchange for a reservation between the Arkansas and Sand Creek, Colorado.

1862   U.S. Congress approved an act entitled "An Act to grant lands to Dakota, Montana, Arizona, Idaho and Wyoming for university purposes.":  Attribution:  On This Day.

1906  John B. Stetson in Florida died at age 75.  He was the founder of the famous hat manufacturing company.

1911 An act providing that each county would have legislative representation was signed into law by Governor Carey. Attribution:  On This Day.

1913         Gen. Victoriano Huerta becomes leader of the Mexican government, a step on the way to the Mexican Civil War.

1917   The Cheyenne State Leader for February 18, 1917: Villa gone to Japan?

A rumor was published of Pancho Villa going East. . . .way East.

He didn't.

The cowboy victims of border violence were buried. And Cuban revolutionaries were reportedly holding Santiago.

And of course, U-boots were taking headlines.
1931  Governor Frank C. Emerson died in office at age 48.

1931  Alonzo M. Clark became Governor of Wyoming due to the death of Governor Emerson.

1933   Gov. Miller signed an act repealing enforcement of prohibition by Wyoming.The repeal was actually only partial at first, and it took a period of many months before there was a complete repeal.

1937  A shell exploded on the USS Wyoming during exercises killing six Marines and injuring eleven others.  Attribution:  On This Day.

1943  Converse County woman collected furs to be used for vests for merchant marines.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1987  Cuttthroat Trout declared to be State Fish.

Sunday, February 17, 2013

February 17

1870  Esther Hobart Morris officially appointed Justice of the Peace. As noted, she was approved for this position several days prior.

 Ester Hobart Morris statute on the Wyoming State Capitol Grounds.

1917  Fourteenth state legislature adjourns.

1917   The Cheyenne State Leader for February 17, 1917: Border watched, Guard coming home.

The Wyoming Tribune for February 17, 1917: National Guardsmen coming home.

With the U.S. Army back over the border, Woodrow Wilson apparently decided that the Guard no longer needed to be Federalized, so they were getting ready to deactivate them.

This makes sense, in context, but on the other hand its a bit difficult to grasp why Wilson, who was leading a country that rocketing towards war and he was letting the Guard stand down.  In hindsight, it would have really made a bit more sense to retain them as mustered in anticipation of war.  Indeed, in World War Two the Guard, and what little Reserve there was, was called into service in 1940 in anticipation of the looming war.

The Legislature was also set to come home, something that every citizen holds their breath for . . .
1923  Seventeenth state legislature adjourns.

1933 Craig Thomas born in Cody.  Thomas served as Congressman from 1989 to 1995 and Senator from Wyoming from 1995 until his death in 2007.

1933 The Blaine Act ends Prohibition at the Federal level.  Contrary to popular imagination, it didn't necessarily end it everywhere in the US, as many states, including Wyoming, had separate and additional Prohibition statutes.

1945  Max Maxfield, State Auditor from 1999 to 2007, and then was elected Secretary of State in 2006, born in Beloit Wisconsin.

1968 2nd Lt. Richard W. Pershing, 502nd Infanty, grandson of John J. Pershing and great grandson of F. E. Warren killed in action in Vietnam.

1986  Budget session of the forty eighth legislature convened.

Saturday, February 16, 2013

February 16

1878  The silver dollar become legal tender in the U.S.

1890   Robert C. Morris suggested the "Equality State" as a state motto.  Morris was the son of Esther Hobart Morris, and she lived with him in his house in Cheyenne in her later years.  He was a legislator in the early 20th Century, and served as the Clerk of the Wyoming Supreme Court.

1895  Third State Legislature concludes.

1901  Governor Richards signed an act that required county commissions to raise taxes for the purpose of building a residence for the governor.  Attribution:  On This Day.

1901  Sixth State Legislature concludes.

1907  Ninth State Legislature concludes.

1908  The Atlas Theatre opened in Cheyenne.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1917   America Here's My Boy
In a clear sign how things were beginning to go, and an early introduction to what would be a massive movement in the American public supporting the Great War and shaming those who didn't, the song America Here's My Boy was copyrighted on  this day and very soon released:

This came, of course, just before the US entered the war, but it would end up being an early World War One American hit.

I wouldn't rate it as great, but then music of this era. . . .

Anyhow, it was a bit of a reaction to I Didn't Raise My Boy To Be A Soldier.

Band sound similar to the one above?

It's the same one.

At any rate, I doubt America Here's My Boy "expressed the sentiment of every American mother." I learned the year prior to my own mother's death that she worried that war would break out the entire time I was in the National Guard.

The Cheyenne Leader for February 16, 1917. Three Americans Captured by Mexicans Found Slain

More bad news from the Mexican border. . . and elsewhere.
The Wyoming Tribune for February 16, 1917. More troops being rushed to the border

More troops rushed to the border.

And the beginnings of JrROTC.

1919  The new Wyoming flag presented officially to Governor Robert D. Carey.

1929  Twentieth State Legislature concludes.

1935  Twenty Third State Legislature concludes.

1944 55 slot machines seized in Casper.  Attribution. Wyoming State Historical Society.

1948 NBC-TV aired its first nightly newscast, "The Camel Newsreel Theatre," which consisted of Fox Movietone newsreels.

2011 Scott W. Skavdahl nominated the United States District Court Judge for the District of Wyoming, replacing the seat vacated by Judge William Downes.  Judge Skavdahl, like Judge Downes before him, occupies the Federal District Courthouse in Casper, a classic large Federal Courthouse built during the Great Depression.  Wyoming's other sitting Federal judges sit in Cheyenne.  Wyoming has quite an assortment of Federal Courthouses, but only two are in daily use.  Surprisingly, a number of Wyoming's Federal District Courthouses have been retired or even disposed of, even as the number of judges has grown.

Friday, February 15, 2013

February 15

1812   The Astorians reached the mouth of the Columbia River.  They traveled overland with one horse for each two men.

1869  Laramie's first school opened.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1879   President Rutherford B. Hayes signs a bill allowing female attorneys to argue cases before the United States Supreme Court.

1887  Reports from Montana start to place the state's cattle deaths from this disastrous winter at 60%.

1898 The U.S.S Maine blew up in Havana Harbor.  This event would lead in short order to the Spanish American War, the first US war that Wyoming would participate in as a state.

 Wreckage of the USS Maine.

1909  Park County formed.

1917  The Natrona County Tribune for February 15, 1917: Casper Man Witnesses Return of Pershing's Expedition

An eyewitness Wyoming Guardsman reported on what he saw on the return of the Punitive Expedition from Mexico.

In other local news, a German-Hibernian bank was being formed.
The Cheyenne State Leader for February 15, 1917: Villistas threaten U.S. "Line".

Using terms now familiar to the readers to due the news on the Great War, Villistas were reported to be threatening the U.S. "line".

The news, in regards to Mexico, had nearly returned to the state of the year prior.

Otherwise, the news was much as noted in the paper below.  Gas leases, horse thieves, and the German U-boot campaign.

And Cuba again.
The Wyoming Tribune for February 15, 1917: Five Americans Shot by Mexican Raiders.

The border with Mexico was fully back on headlines, recalling the year prior, with news of a deadly Mexican raid into the US.

In other news, the crisis with Germany loomed large, but so did the capture of horse theives.
1919 US veterans of World War One formed the American Legion in Paris France.

1921 Teton County formed.

1921  Sublette County formed.

1925  Fire in Shoshoni destroyed twelve buildings.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1933     President-elect Franklin D. Roosevelt escaped an assassination attempt in Miami but which claimed the life of Chicago Mayor Anton J. Cermak.

The attempted assassin in this matter was Giuseppe Zangara, an Italian veteran of World War One who was fairly clearly in poor health and increasingly suffering from delusions to some extent.  The wounded Mayor Cermak survived until March 6, 1933.  By that time, Zangara had already been sentenced for four counts of attempted murder, and was given 20 years for each count.

That is, he had been sentenced in less than a month.

He was charged with homicide on March 8, 1933, due to Cermak's death.  He plead guilty and was executed on March 20, 1933.

Cermak never contested his responsibility for the crimes.  He was increasingly ill and suffering from delusions, but his statements made it fairly clear that he conceived of his actions as some sort of radical anti-capitalist action.  What strikes me as amazing, however, is that he went from arrest to execution in a little over a month.  Indeed, he went from arrest for homicide to execution in 14 days.

I am not noting this in order to make a comment about the death penalty.  That's an entirely different topic and frankly addressing it in the context of 2012 in comparison to 1933 isn't really even possible.  But what is really striking is that the criminal process played itself out so very rapidly.  Now I would have expected a process of examination to determine if Zangara was sane or even competent to make a confession, and there's no way on earth that the process would have occurred so very rapidly.

1955 "Wyoming" adopted as the official song of Wyoming.

The lyrics are:
In the far and mighty West, Where the crimson sun seeks rest, There's a growing splendid State that lies above, On the breast of this great land; Where the massive Rockies stand, There's Wyoming young and strong, the State I love!

Chorus:  Wyoming, Wyoming! Land of the sunlight clear! Wyoming, Wyoming! Land that we hold so dear! Wyoming, Wyoming! Precious art thou and thine! Wyoming, Wyoming! Beloved State of mine!

In the flowers wild and sweet, Colors rare and perfumes meet; There's the columbine so pure, the daisy too, Wild the rose and red it springs, White the button and its rings, Thou art loyal for they're red and white and blue,

Where thy peaks with crowned head, Rising till the sky they wed, Sit like snow queens ruling wood and stream and plain; 'Neath thy granite bases deep, 'Neath thy bosom's broadened sweep, Lie the riches that have gained and brought thee fame.

Other treasures thou dost hold, Men and women thou dost mould, True and earnest are the lives that thou dost raise, Strengthen thy children though dost teach, Nature's truth thou givest to each, Free and noble are thy workings and thy ways.

In the nation's banner free There's one star that has for me A radiance pure and splendor like the sun; Mine it is, Wyoming's star, Home it leads me near or far; O Wyoming! All my heart and love you've won!
1961  Laramie County Sheriff Norbert E. Tuck was killed in a railroad crossing accident in Iowa while returning a prisoner to Wyoming.

2006  Cheyenne's Union Pacific depot declared a National Historic Landmark.