How To Use This Site

How To Use This Site

This blog was updated on a daily basis for about two years, with those daily entries ceasing on December 31, 2013. The blog is still active, however, and we hope that people stopping in, who find something lacking, will add to the daily entries.

The blog still receives new posts as well, but now it receives them on items of Wyoming history. That has always been a feature of the blog, but Wyoming's history is rich and there are many items that are not fully covered here, if covered at all. Over time, we hope to remedy that.

You can obtain an entire month's listings by hitting on the appropriate month below, or an individual day by hitting on that calendar date.
Use 2013 for the search date, as that's the day regular dates were established and fixed.

Alternatively, the months are listed immediately below, with the individual days appearing backwards (oldest first).

We hope you enjoy this site.

Friday, May 31, 2013

President Theodore Roosevelt's 1903 Horseback Travel Route Field Trip |

President Theodore Roosevelt's 1903 Horseback Travel Route Field Trip |

Re:  May 30 entry.

This would actually be a fairly doable route today.

May 31

1834  Sublette and Campbell start constructing Ft. William, which would later become Ft. Laramie.

1872  A boating club was organized in Cheyenne.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1877   Colonel Nelson Miles reports that 2,300 Sioux have surrendered at the Red Cloud and Spotted Tail Agencies over the past two months..

1903  Theodore Roosevelt attended church in Cheyenne (it was a Sunday) and lunched with Joseph Carey.

1913   The 17th Amendment to the US Constitution, providing for the popular election of U.S. senators, was declared in effect.

1916    So, on the day thousands lost their lives violently at sea, what did the local news look like? May 31, 1916
Well, given that the Battle of Jutland was a naval battle, we can't expect it to show up in the day's news, even the late editions, at all.

Indeed, something that's easy to forget about the battle, as we tend to think of the later battles of World War Two a bit more (which also features some large surface engagements, contrary to the myth to the contrary) is that World War One naval battles were exclusively visual in nature.

That's not to say that radio wasn't used, it most certainly was. But targeting was all visual.  And as the battle took place in the North Sea, dense fog and hanging smoke played a prominent role in the battle.

Now, we note that, as while the British and German fleets were using radio communications, they weren't broadcasting the news, and they wouldn't have done that even if it were the 1940s.  And the radio communications were there, but exclusively military.  News of the battle had to wait until the fleets returned home, which is interesting in that the Germans were closer to their ports, so closer to press outlets.  Indeed, the point of the battle was to keep the Germans in port, or at the bottom of the sea.

So, on this day of a major battle, maybe in some ways the major battle of World War One, what news did local residents see?

The death of Mr. Hill, and the draft Roosevelt movement were receiving headline treatment in Sheridan.

I'm surprised that there was a University of Wyoming student newspaper for this day, as I would have thought that the university would have been out of school by then.  Maybe not.  However.  Interesting to note that this was published the day after Memorial Day, so it was a contemporary paper.  Now, the current paper, The Branding Iron, is weekly, I think.  The crises of the times show up in the form of UWs early ROTC making an appearance on Memorial Day.
1921   Guido F. Schlote of Afton received a patent for a coat collar fastener.

1945  1,500,000 lbs of wool reported to have been shipped from Rock Springs during the last six weeks.  Wool was a vital defense fiber during World War Two as it formed the fabric used for all military uniforms used in the ETO and over half used in the Continental United States.  Only in the Pacific was cotton the dominant fiber.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1947  Ft. F. E. Warren becomes an Air Force Base.  Attribution:  On This Day.

Thursday, May 30, 2013

May 30

1834  William Sublette and William Anderson arrive at "Laramee's Fork", named for the late Jacque LaRamie, a trapper who had been killed there. The next day they lay the foundation logs for Fort William, which would be come Ft. Laramie..  Attribution:  On This Day.

1854    The territories of Nebraska and Kansas were established.  Wyoming east of the Rocky Mountains was included in the Nebraska Territory.

1862  Companies A, B, C, and D of the First Battalion of the 6th Ohio Volunteer Cavalry arrived at Fort Laramie.

1865  Cheyenne and/or Sioux attack Three Crossings Station.

1871  Wyoming Stock Growers Association, which would have an enormous impact on Wyoming's history, formed.

1901         Memorial Day becomes a national observance.

1903  Theodore Roosevelt visited Cheyenne and Laramie.  He stopped first in Laramie, where he delivered a speech at Old Main.  Invited by Rough Rider veterans to ride to the next stop, Cheyenne, he did so.

1904  Sheep rancher Lincoln Morrison shot in ambush near Kirby Creek, Hot Springs County, Wyo. He survived.  His mother, Lucy Morrison Moore, “The Sheep Queen,” offers a $3,500 reward but the attempted murderer is not discovered.

1908  The commencement of a Evanston to Denver horse race.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1916   Memorial Day, 1916
So, on Memorial Day, 2016, let's look back a century at Memorial Day, 1916.

Armored car in a parade in New York City.  Mounted policemen, on the left edge of the photo, truly look a lot more mobile and effective than this armored car.

This had to be a really somber Memorial Day.  World War One was raging in Europe. Ships were going down in the North Atlantic.  American soldiers were chasing Villa in Mexico. All that must have hung over the heads of the citizenry like a dark cloud.
Still, usually something goes on for this holiday. And some of it ends up on the front page of the news in anticipation of the day.  Let's see what we can find around the state and nation.  We've put one up above, a parade was held in New York City that featured a rather martial, if rather antiquated looking even then, armored vehicle.
One of the Casper papers didn't see fit to really announce anything on the front page for the day.
One of the Sheridan papers urged honoring veterans.
Another Sheridan paper did honor veterans, and of the conflict with Mexico.  Memorial Day festivities were also noted.
Interestingly, the death of Confederate John Singleton Mosby was also noted.
And Colorado National Guard officials were resigning in the wake of the Ludlow strife.  Quite a paper, all in all.
An important death figured on the front page of the Cheyenne Leader. By that time, that paper was summarizing "the War", meaning the war in Europe, on a regular basis.  Memorial Day was noted in the context of the Grand Army of the Republic, i.e., the Union troops who had fought in the Civil War (although not all joined the GAR of course).

Scandal, war and violence figured on cover of the Wyoming Semi-Weekly Tribune.
War and the "draft Roosevelt" movement took pride of place on the cover of The Wyoming Tribune, which also noted Memorial Day in the context of the Civil  War, which after all is what it commemorated.

1997  The USS Wyoming, SSBN 742,  successfully launched one Trident II missile during the ship's Demonstration and Shakedown Operation.

2007  Laramie's post office named after the late Senator Gale McGee.

Wednesday, May 29, 2013

President Theodore Roosevelt's 1903 Visit to Wyoming |

President Theodore Roosevelt's 1903 Visit to Wyoming |

May 29

1815  British government opens Canadian commerce to US citizens following the end of the War of 1812.

1843   John C. Fremont again departs from St. Louis to explore the West, having only recently returned from his first western expedition.

1876  Crook's forces depart Ft. Fetterman for the second time in 1876, for a summer campaign against the Sioux.

1878  John M. Thayer concludes his term as Territorial Governor.  Thayer was originally from Massachusetts but had relocated to eastern Nebraska to farm and practice law.  He served in the Civil War and was brevetted to the rank of Major General.  He was appointed Territorial Governor by President Grant, and returned to Nebraska after his term concluded.

1878  John W. Hoyt took office as Territorial Governor.  Hoyt was a polymath who had a law degree and a medical degree, had taught chemistry, and who was interested in agriculture.  He was the University of Wyoming's first president. 

1888 First Wyoming National Guard unit, the Laramie Grays, organized.

1890  The Wyoming's first Federally recognized National Guard unit formed, Company A, 1st Wyoming Regiment, the Laramie Grays.  The Laramie Grays are a short lived cavalry unit.  In spite of the absolute dependance on the horse for the economy of the region, Wyoming National Guard units were generally infantry, and then artillery, up until after World War One.

1891  The cemetery for Ft. Bridger relocated to Ft. McPherson Nebraska. 

1903  President Theodore Roosevelt made a whistle stop in Evanstson.

1904  A Natrona County boy was shot while herding sheep at Alkali Gulch. Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1912  John W. Hoyt, former Territorial Governor and first President of the University of Wyoming, died in Washington D. C.

1919  A new city  hall is opened in Casper.  The building is no longer there.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1943   “Rosie the Riveter” appeared on the cover of “The Saturday Evening Post" in an illustration by Norman Rockwell.  The concept of Rosie the Riveter would go on to virtually define the war industry employed working woman of World War Two, and would later be the subject of a very famous war poster, by another artist.  The image has gone on to later somewhat define feminism, but the image it has come to portray is inaccurate.  In truth, women were employed in war industries during World War One as well, and in some ways female labor during World War One was not only every bit as important as it was during World War Two, but more important, as women took over many roles in agriculture normally occupied by men.  The entire concept, therefore, that World War Two caused women to enter the workplace is incorrect, as the same forces were at work during World War One.

1943   Meat and cheese began to be rationed in US.

1971  A category 2 tornado injured three people in Casper.   Attribution:  On This Day.

1984  A 5.0 magnitude earthquake occurred 23 miles from Gillette.  Attribution:  On This Day.

Tuesday, May 28, 2013

May 28

1865  Cheyenne and/or Sioux attacked Elkhorn Station, Wyoming with inconclusive results.  They also attacked Sweetwater Station, Wyoming and took four horses and two mules and Pole Creek Station, Wyoming.

1869   Territorial Governor Campbell issued an order for a census of Wyoming Territory.  Attribution:  On This Day.

1900  Construction began on the Sidon Canal in the Big Horn Basin.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1902  The Virginian published.

1918  Mieli Rohkea Jartti of Glencoe patented a design for a sled attachment to an automobile.

1987  Norris, Madison, Fishing Bridge Museums and the Old Faithful Inn designated a National Historic Landmarks.Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.  Attribution:  On This Day.

Monday, May 27, 2013

Boy Scout Parade, Heart Mountain Internment Center, Memorial Day 1944.

312100_548378891872281_871553704_n.jpg (JPEG Image, 768 × 522 pixels)

Memorial Day

Observers here may have noted that I failed to put up a post for Memorial Day when this post was first made, in 2012.

This is in part due to Memorial Day being one of those days that moves around as, in recent years, Congress has attempted to make national holidays into three day weekends. That's nice for people, but in some ways it also takes away from the holiday a bit.  At the same time, it sort of tells you that if a holiday hasn't been moved to the nearest Friday or Monday, next to its original location on the calendar, it means that the holiday is either hugely important, a religious holiday, or extremely minor.  The 4th of July and Flag Day, one major and one minor, do not get moved, for example.

Anyhow, Memorial Day commenced at some point either immediately after or even during the Civil War, depending upon how you reckon it, and if you are date dependent for the origin of the holiday.  In American terms, the day originally served to remember the dead of the then recent Civil War.  The holiday, in the form of "Decoration Day" was spreading by the late 1860s.  The name Memorial Day was introduced in the 1880s, but the Decoration Day name persisted until after World War Two.  The holiday became officially named Memorial Day by way of a Federal statute passed in 1967.  In 1971 the holiday was subject to the Uniform Monday Holiday Act which caused it to fall on the last Monday of May, as it does now.

The day, therefore, would have always been observed in Wyoming, which had Grand Army of the Republic lodges since prior to statehood. But, like many holidays of this type, observation of the holiday had changed over the years.  In the 1960s and 1970s, by my recollection, the day was generally observed by people visiting the grave sites of any deceased family member, and therefore it was more of a day to remember the dead, rather than a day to recall the war dead.  This, however, has changed in recent years to a very noticeable extent.  Presently, it tends to serve as a second Veterans Day, during which veterans in general are recalled.  This year, for example, Middle School children in Natrona County decorated the graves of servicemen in the county with poppies, strongly recalling the poppy campaigns of the VFW that existed for many years.

Wyoming has a strong military culture, even though the state has lost all but two of its military installations over the years. The state had the highest rate of volunteers for the service during World War Two, and it remained strongly in support of the Vietnam War even when it turned unpopular nationwide.  The state's National Guard has uniquely played a role in every US war since statehood, including Vietnam, so perhaps the state's subtle association with Memorial Day may be stronger than might be supposed.

On remembrance, we'd be remiss if we didn't point out our Some Gave All site.

May 27

1837         James Butler "Wild Bill" Hickok, born in Homer Illinois.

1870  Indians who raided a Kansas Pacific construction crew on the 13th crossed the Union Pacific near Antelope with cavalry under Forsythe in pursuit.

1876.  The Powder River Expedition leaves Ft. Fetterman.

1893  The first electric lights in Sheridan were turned on at the Sheridan Inn.

 The Sheridan Inn, in 2012.

1898  Troop F 2nd U.S. Volunteer Cavalry, c0ming from Rock Springs, Green River and Cheyenne, mustered in at Fort Russell.  Officers and men were:  Willis F. Hoadley, Captain; Leonard L. Deitrick, first lieutenant; Thomas J. King, second lieutenant; Frank Kidd, first sergeant; Daniel B. Shields, quartermaster sergeant; John A. Jackson, George E. Artist, George Landenberger, George D. Solomon, William A. Crawford and Jeremiah Maly, sergeants; John W. Peters, Bert McClure, Angus J. Matheson, Jacob L. Parrott, Frank C. Wells, Melville W. James, Josiah H. Eardley and John E. O'Riley, corporals; Frank J. Gunther and Edward F. Ely, trumpeters; Lucius A. Place, saddler: James Paulson, wagoner.  Troopers–Benjamin Benz, Joseph Bird, Henry C. Bloom, John N. Bodendick, John E. Brooks, Samuel K. Brown, Morrison Chester, Charles W. Cole, Bert Collins, Thomas Craig, Allison Davis, Walter Durbin, Albert B. Ekdall, Max Fairbanks, William Farley, Rufus E. Garner, Frederick Hagen, Patrick W. Haley, Frank O. Johnson, Leo Leffler, Milton M Lewis, George H. McBride, James W. McGuire, Robert McKlem. Arthur Maher. Robert Manassa, Philip Michaels, William D. Moffatt, John Muir, Robert Myers, Charles O'Brien, William O'Brien, James H. Patterson, Harry N. Pauley, Walter J. Peckham, Emile Peterson, Edward Petteys, Charles A. Pierson, Ellsworth Porter, Lawrence Riordan, George G. Robinson, George W. Sadlier, Adolph C. Saunders, Edward G. Schoel, Benjamin Smith, Edgar M. Smith, Eugen Tiberghein, Frederick O. Wale.

1908   Congress passes the “Second Dick Act", part of a series of statutes that fully establish the National Guard as the reserve of the Army.  This was part  of a significant reform movement in this direction at this time, backed by National Guardsmen, who feared that the alternative was to be relegated to a species of state police for strike breaking.
Co. C. Wyoming National Guard, 1916, Powell Wyoming.

1911    Vice President Hubert H. Humphrey was born in Wallace, S.D.

1918  The Kaiserschlacht Carries on. May 27, 1918. Operation Blücher-Yorck.
Operation Blücher-Yorck.

 The big picture again.  This time, having failed to push the British into the sea, the Germans turned their attention to the region where British forces and French forces met, with a diversionary drive on Paris.  This "third German drive" was as successful in terms of gaining ground as the first German drive was, and it threatened Paris even as a diversion.

On May 27, 1918, after two full months since the spring offensive first began, the Germans launched Operation  Blücher-Yorck against the French near the River Aisne.  It became a straight drive towards Paris designed to split the French and British forces from each other and cause the British to divert forces to save the French capitol.  The offensive used the same set of assumptions that the Germans had about their enemies earlier in the spring, namely that the British were the real threat.  The attack, therefore, was a large scale diversion.  While designed to put pressure on the French, in reality the main blow fell against British units that had been in the line in this relatively more quiet sector.  French failures to design a realistic defense lead to initial German success.

The Germans did in fact break through at the gap between French and British forces and their drive towards Paris was remarkably successful.  The Germans in fact continued to advance up until March 6.  During this phase of the Spring Offensive American troops began to be deployed against the Germans in strength and in fact the US 1st Division launched its own offensive on May 28 at Cantigny.  This signaled the beginning of the large-scale use of American troops in the war.  Losses on each side were again roughly equal, with the Allies loosing 137,000 men and the Germans 160,000.

Of course, at this point the Germans didn't really have the men to loose.  But given the commitment they had made and the state of the war, they no longer really had an option. . . other than trying to come to the table.

1919  May 27, 1919: The Peace Conference waits on the Germans, Wyoming troops wait on discharge, Tragedy in Casper.
David Lloyd George, Vittorio Orlando, Georges Clemenceau and Woodrow Wilson in Paris, May 27, 1919.  Of interest, only Orlando wears the Edwardian suit, a somewhat less formal alternative to formal dress clothes. Everyone else were's morning coats, which were not i the nature of tuxedos today, but conventional formal wear.

The peace conference continued on with the question still being, would Germany sign, or not?

The Wyoming State Tribune was reporting that British and American Marines had been landed, as a result of the uncertainty, in Danzig.  I've never read that claim before and I frankly wonder if its correct.

In the same issue, a building story about the perception that troops from the West were not being mustered out as quickly as those from elsewhere was reported on.

And the news that the NC-4 had nearly made it to Portugal was featured.

It was also featured in the Casper paper, which also had the story about Western troops. The big news in Casper, however, was a tragic explosion near town.

It wasn't Memorial Day, like it is now, but the weather was certainly more holiday like.  Casper was enjoying a warm spell in 1919.  It isn't now.

 Seattle, May 27, 1919.

Seattle Washington was photographed.

1920   Frank A. Hadsell becomes warden of the State Penitentiary.

1929   Pen used by President Coolidge to sign the bill creating Grand Teton National Park donated to State Museum.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1941  President Roosevelt proclaimed an "unlimited national emergency"..

1944 Roy Rogers bought a horse to act as a Trigger stand in, in Lusk Wyoming.
2011 The Jackson Hole Historical Society and Museum had the grand opening of their new museum.

2013  Memorial Day for 2013.

2019  Memorial Day for 2019.

2020 Pandemic, Part Two.  Governor Gordon issues new quarantine orders and cancellation of rodeos occurs.

May 28, 2020

Governor Gordon issued a new series of modifications to his existing quarantine orders, with some of the modifications being quite extensive.
Outdoor gatherings up to 250 persons to be permitted under new health orders
CHEYENNE, Wyo. – Governor Mark Gordon has announced that updated public health orders effective June 1 will ease restrictions on public gatherings, allowing outdoor gatherings of up to 250 people.
The updated orders allow for outdoor events to occur with social distancing and increased sanitization measures in place. Sporting events, rodeos and other events will be permitted to have up to 250 spectators in attendance, in addition to the event participants.  
"It’s time we had the chance to enjoy summer,” Governor Gordon said. “The ability to gather outdoors in larger groups will be good for Wyoming citizens, businesses and our communities as we enter the season. We are not out of the woods yet though, so please use good judgement and don’t jeopardize yourself and others by acting recklessly. We want to keep moving forward.”

Hosts and organizers of these outdoor events are asked to screen staff for symptoms of COVID-19 and ensure adequate personal protective equipment is available. Food and beverage services at outdoor gatherings are required to follow the provision for restaurants outlined in Public Health Order No. 1.

Indoor events and gatherings, other than religious gatherings and other exemptions listed in the order, will continue to be restricted to groups of 25 or fewer. No significant changes are being made to the updated Public Health Orders 1 and 3.

Updated copies of all three Public Health Orders are attached and can be found on the Wyoming's COVID-19 website

One of the significant changes, we'd note, is that churches are now allowed to reopen to groups larger than 25 in number, with certain social distancing provisions in place.  Restrictions on Communion were lifted, with guidance.

Governor Gordon also expressed his disappointment on the cancellation of a variety of rodeos around the state.

Governor Gordon expresses disappointment that Wyoming's 6 largest rodeos are cancelled in 2020 
Governor stands with event organizers to support their decision
CHEYENNE, Wyo. – Wyoming Governor Mark Gordon and representatives from the state’s largest rodeos announced today that six of Wyoming’s large rodeos and events will not take place in 2020. This decision factored in economics, health concerns and logistics.  
The cancellation decision was made collectively and includes the Thermopolis Cowboy Rendezvous PRCA Rodeo in late June as well the Cody Stampede, Central Wyoming Fair & PRCA Rodeo in Casper, the Sheridan WYO Rodeo and Breakaway Roping, Laramie Jubilee Days, and Cheyenne Frontier Days, all scheduled for July. 
“This hurts. I grew up with rodeo and it is part of Wyoming’s fabric and our culture,” Governor Gordon said. “All the rodeos impacted today are fabulous events. It is with a heavy heart, and only after many long discussions with these fine folks on ways we could make large-venue rodeos work, did we realize that it just wasn’t going to be possible this year.” 
The Governor and his staff met with rodeo committee members from Cody, Sheridan, Thermopolis, Laramie, Casper and Cheyenne over the past several weeks to consider potential social distancing measures, entrance and exit plans, and other possibilities to ensure safely staging rodeos, parades, carnivals and concerts. 
Flanked by representatives of all six rodeos, the Governor said that after several weeks of evaluation, discussions, and considerations of every possible scenario, it was clear that there was no safe or economically viable path forward at this time for these events. 
“The health and safety of our fans, volunteers, contestants and first responders is our primary concern.” the Governor emphasized. “I know what this means for rodeo, for our communities and to Wyoming’s summer. The financial and emotional impacts are immense. But it’s the right thing to do. We are committed to doing all we can to ensure smaller rodeos and events will still be able to occur." 
While these six Western celebrations are not possible in 2020, there is a statewide commitment to returning stronger than ever in 2021. A video message from organizers of all six events can be found here
Contact information for each of the rodeos follows below:  
Thermopolis Cowboy Rendezvous
Contact:  T.J. Owsley; ; 307-921- 0534
Cody Stampede
Contact:  Mike Darby;; 307 250 1259
Central Wyoming Fair & Rodeo
Contact:  Tom Jones;; (307) 258-3886
Sheridan Wyo Rodeo
Contact:  Billy Craft;; 307-751-1831
Laramie Jubilee Days
Contact:  Guy Warpness;; 307-760-8777                                                                                                  
Cheyenne Frontier Days                               
Contact:  Nicole Gamst;; 307 778 7210                              
The lifting of some restrictions combined with the cancellations expresses the interesting dual approach to things that is currently occuring in the state. As the state lifts restrictions every couple of weeks, individual cities and entities are continuing to cancel events. Now nearly every significant rodeo in the state has been cancelled for the season, an event which followed the earlier cancellation of the college rodeo finals.

The cancellation of the rodeo finals resulted in the postponement of the AOPA fly in to 2021.  Also postponed were the performances scheduled for this year's Natrona County Beartrap festival, as it was cancelled.

So while businesses and institutions are allowed to open up, annual events are largely being postponed.

There is of course a resulting economic impact from big events being cancelled.  According to the Tribune, the county will lose $4,000,000 in lost revenues due to the fair and rodeo being cancelled.  But a person has to wonder, as we will in a separate thread, what attendance would have been actually like this year.  With restrictions lifted around the state some large gatherings are occurring nationally, while in other places people have been slow to return.

A nationwide poll that was conducted surprisingly indicates that only 50% of Americans would receive a vaccination, if one is developed. That would mean that with existing infections it'd still be questionable if the United States reached herd immunity.

That's really stunning under the circumstances. During this crisis there's been a fair amount of shaming of people who haven't worn masks or who failed to self isolate.  Whether or not those things are justified or not, a public reaction against those who would not vaccinate, and who therefore are really voting to keep the pandemic going, would be legitimate.

Sunday, May 26, 2013

May 26

1805  Corps of Discovery saw the Rocky Mountains for the first time.

1864  Montana Territory established. Wyoming was part of it at the time.

1882  The Cheyenne Opera House opened.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1882   Frank Collins Emerson born in Saginaw Michigan.  He became State Engineer in 1919 and Governor in 1927.  He would die in office in 1931.  Attribution:  On This Day.

1891  Benjamin Staunton of Douglas received a patent for a Rotary Index and Photograph-Album.

1896  The graves at the military cemetery located at LaBonte P.O., relocated to Ft. McPherson, Nebraska.

1921   Eddie Rickenbacker crashed a mail plane near Cheyenne.

1924  Lusk State Bank established.

1983  The Wyoming State Penitentiary District in Rawlins added to the National Register of Historic Places.

2000   A magnitude 4.0 earthquake occurred between Casper, Riverton and Lander.

2001   Laurence Rockefeller donated his Wyoming ranch to the national parks system.

Saturday, May 25, 2013

May 25

1865  Indian raid on stage station on Green River drives off stock.

1872  Frank Wolcott, who would later be strongly associated with the Cattleman's invasion of Johnson County, appointed U.S. Marshall.

1898  President McKinley issued a proclamation calling for 75,000 more volunteers for the  Spanish American War.

1903  In a terrible accident, an animal keeper was crushed to death by an elephant in a freight car near Medicine Bow.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1909   The Reclamation Service sold lots in Powell, founding the town.

1911  BB-32 USS Wyoming launched.

1918   Mexico back in the headlines, May 25, 1918

Cuba and Mexico, it seems, were not getting along.

And former President Theodore Roosevelt wasn't getting along with the Postmaster General.

Poncho Villa was making the front page again.

And the nation might need old soldiers who hadn't faded away.

Costa Rica had entered the fray.

And snow was predicted.

May 25, 1918.

1971   Major Wiliam E. Adams, U. S. Army, performed the actions that resulted in his being awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor, but he lost his life in the process.  We was a member of the A/227th Assault Helicopter Company, 52d Aviation Battalion, 1st Aviation Brigade. He entered the service from Kansas City, Missouri but had been born in Casper on16 June 1939.  Citation: Maj. Adams distinguished himself on 25 May 1971 while serving as a helicopter pilot in Kontum Province in the Republic of Vietnam. On that date, Maj. Adams volunteered to fly a lightly armed helicopter in an attempt to evacuate 3 seriously wounded soldiers from a small fire base which was under attack by a large enemy force. He made the decision with full knowledge that numerous antiaircraft weapons were positioned around the base and that the clear weather would afford the enemy gunners unobstructed view of all routes into the base. As he approached the base, the enemy gunners opened fire with heavy machine guns, rocket-propelled grenades and small arms. Undaunted by the fusillade, he continued his approach determined to accomplish the mission. Displaying tremendous courage under fire, he calmly directed the attacks of supporting gunships while maintaining absolute control of the helicopter he was flying. He landed the aircraft at the fire base despite the ever-increasing enemy fire and calmly waited until the wounded soldiers were placed on board. As his aircraft departed from the fire base, it was struck and seriously damaged by enemy anti-aircraft fire and began descending. Flying with exceptional skill, he immediately regained control of the crippled aircraft and attempted a controlled landing. Despite his valiant efforts, the helicopter exploded, overturned, and plummeted to earth amid the hail of enemy fire. Maj. Adams' conspicuous gallantry, intrepidity, and humanitarian regard for his fellow man were in keeping with the most cherished traditions of the military service and reflected utmost credit on him and the U S. Army.

1975  Midwest incorporated.

Friday, May 24, 2013

May 24

1865  Three Cheyenne or Sioux warriors attempted to drive off the horses at Sweetwater Station, Wyoming.  One of them was killed in the process.

1869  John Wesley Powell's expedition left Green River.  Attribution:  On  This Day.

1904  President Roosevelt made the following statement in his commencement address at Groton:  "It shall profit us nothing if our people are decent and ineffective. It shall profit us nothing if they are efficient and wicked. In every walk of life, in business, politics; if the need comes, in war; in literature, science, art, in everything, what we need is a sufficient number of men who can work well and who will work with a high ideal."

1918  A Red Cross parade in Laramie drew thousands of observers and businesses were closed between 10 and 1. Attribution:  On This Day. 

1944 The University of Wyoming announces it will offer a woman's aviation program.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1968  Chief, the last U.S. Army Remount to have served in the U.S. Cavalry (as far as is known), died.

2003  UXU Ranch outside in Park County added to the National Registry of Historic Places.

Chief, The Last U.S. Cavalry Horse | Nebraska History Blog

Chief, The Last U.S. Cavalry Horse | Nebraska History Blog

See today's entry for 1968.

Thursday, May 23, 2013

May 23

1846   President Mariano Paredes of Mexico unofficially declares war on the United States.

1865  Sioux and Cheyenne raiders return to Deer Creek Station and try again.

1868  Kit Carson died at Ft. Lyon, Colorado, at age 59.

1898   Troop C  of the Second U. S. Volunteer Cavalry, "Torrey's Rough Riders", recruited in the vicinity of Laramie, mustered in at Fort D. A. Russell.  The officers and men were as follows:  George R. Shanton, captain; Morgan F. Knadler, first lieutenant; William J. Abrams, second lieutenant; Charles W. Gilmore, first sergeant; Otto Zoller, quartermaster sergeant; George S. Kline, Brutus H. Clay, Joseph T. Orr, Charles K. Harrington and Chris J. Silberg, sergeants; William A. Grosvenor, William J. Sine, Herman C. Peterson, Winter P. Hepburn, Thomas C. Hunt, Albert R. King, Mortimer McKnight and Fred C. Hecht, corporals; Herbert Wallis and Hiram F. Davis, trumpeters; Charles M. Johnson and Jonas H. Farr, farriers; Charles Trew, saddler; Willis D. Jacus, wagoner.  Troopers–Joseph Aaron, Kirt Acor, Daniel L. Aldridge, James Barber, George W. Barker, Alfred A. Benjamin, Patrick Boyle, Henry A. Brown, Harvey B. Burk, George H. Burke, Arthur W. Chesebro, DeWitt Clary, Samuel Coen, William Craver, Tony Cuerden, Frank Curren, Alfred Daykin, Charles S. Dunlap, Sidney H. Dyer, Jack Fee, Jr., Hugh A. Ferguson, Paul Flackstein, Frank Flaherty, George R. Gardner, Harry Griffin, Rasmus Hansen, Hans T. Hansen, Tim Hamlin, Frederick C. Jenkins, Samuel Johnson, William E. Johnston, Meredith Jones, Fred Kassahn, William E. King, Hans T. Kulewatz, Cornelius Lenihan, Frank A. May, Charles W. Mans, Henry S. Mapes, John C. Matheson, Christian W. Miller, Hugh M. McPhee, Andrew C. Neilsen, James U. Nisbet, Adolph A. Olsen, Perry Parish, Albert F. Price, Frank P. Price, Charles B. Peirce, John J. Schenck. Lewis Sherwood, George Schaefer, Henry Steltz, William C. Tipler, Hugh Vass, William B. Wallace. James E. Walsh, Harry H. Whitman, William C. Whittenberg.

Troop E was also mustered in, and had been recruited in the counties of Sheridan, Crook and Weston.  It's officers and men were as follows:  : Henry H. Austin, captain; Norvel H. Baker, first lieutenant; Lewis S. Magruder, second lieutenant; T. J. Gatchell, first sergeant; Daniel L. Van Meter, quartermaster sergeant; George L. Wade, Harve Springer, Patrick J. Conway, Philo Carmon, George Skinner and Robert Long, sergeants; Arthur C. Schneider, Guy Campbell, Charles S. Brown, Ellioft W. Brown, Joseph Sellers, Edward Anderson, William Hymer and Bird Moore, corporals: Truman L. Fox and Anton Jenson, trumpeters, Herman Gerdel and William McWilliams, farriers; Milo Hamilton, saddler; Frank Valentine, wagoner,  Troopers–Richard Alleyne. Guy R. Barton, Ross Bennett, Charles C. Blake, William E. Bollen, Joseph L. Bomar, Marnus J. Cannon, Peter Cannon, Edward Clark, John Cole, Russell Conger, Harry L. Cooper, Harry CosgrifT, Albert M. Crafts, James W. Croghan, John Davey, William Davis, John Davaney, Frank Dooley, Benjamin F. Draper, Arthur Evans, Benjamin Freeman, Carl Gleason, John Gurney, Clarence E. Hefiner, William J. House, Charles Hulett, Charles Kolberg, Arthur Krusee, Harry M. Krusee, Wesley Leaming, John Loafman, Finley Lowry, Roland J. Lytle, Eugene McCarthy, Henry McConaghy, James H. Magoon, William Moncriefife, Samuel B. Pohlman, Chris Rasmussen, Burl Robinett, Alonzo Robinett, Walter Robinson, James F. Rose, Charles Ross, Luther M. Roush, Warren Sawyer, Nelson Simpson, Edward J. Smith, Guy L. Smith, Archie Sollars, David Spitz, Jacob E. StaufTer, Daniel Sweeney, Robert C. Wilkerson, Paul Willitts, Charles F. Wilson, Frank E. Wood.

1903 Theodore Roosevelt, in an address to the Arctic Brotherhood in Seattle, stated: "I think we have cause to feel abundantly justified in our belief that the qualities of the old-time pioneers who first penetrated the woody wilderness between the Alleghenies and the Mississippi, who then steered their way across a vast seas of grass from the Mississippi to the Rockies, who penetrated the passes of the great barren mountains until they came to this, the greatest of all the oceans, still survive in their grandsons and successors."

1912  John Hoyt, Territorial Governor from 1878 to 1882, died in Washington D. C.

1940  The Elk Mountain School closed.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1942   Site for Heart Mountain, Wyoming, Internment camp selected.

1963   Wapiti Ranger Station was designated a National Historic Landmark.Attribution:  On This Day.

1966  Oregon Trail Ruts at Guernsey designated a National Historic Landmark.

Wednesday, May 22, 2013

May 22

1804  The Corps of Discovery departed from St. Charles, Missouri.

1843   A wagon train, made up of 1,000 settlers and 1,000 head of cattle left Independence, Missouri.on the "Great Emigration," down the Oregon Trail. 

1882  Ft. Sanders abandoned. 

1891  The Lincoln Land Company purchased the land upon which Moorcroft would be built.

1902  Medicine Bow Forest Reserve established by President Theodore Roosevelt.

1918  Four hundred Belgian soldiers passed through Wyoming over the Union Pacific Railroad on their way to the war in Europe.  The men had been assigned to fight with the Russians and were evacuated from Russia to the United States across the Pacific. Their train trip across the United States was to send them to an Atlantic port so they could return to service in Europe.

They received warm welcomes in Wyoming as they passed through the state.  Their compliment included several wives of soldiers, likely Russian brides, and one infant.

1920  May 22, 1920. Carranza's Assassination hits the news, and Bergdoll's Departure. The Belmont Run, and Federal Employees get to Retire.
Postman, May 22, 1920.

The dramatic news that Carranza, who had been such a large figure in the Mexican Revolution, and the American Press, had been assassinated hit in the U.S.

Also taking headlines was the flight of Grover Cleveland Bergdoll, a millionaire draft dodger.

Bergdoll had first been in the press as a pre World War One aviator, showing that he at least had an element of personal courage.  But when the war came, he skipped his draft physical and evaded the authorities for two years.  He was finally arrested in January, 1920.

He was tried and convicted, and then oddly allowed out of prison when he claimed the need to recover a cache of gold he'd buried while a fugitive.  On a stop at his home in Philadelphia, while under guard, he managed to escape and flea with his chauffeur.

He went, oddly enough, to Germany, where he further avoided attempts to kidnap him by American soldiers of fortune on two occasions, killing one of them.  He returned to the United States twice while a fugitive and even toured a bit on one occasion.  He finally surrendered to authorities in 1939 and served the remainder of his term plus added time, being released in 1944.  He remained under psychiatric care until his death in 1966.

The Belmont was run on this day in 1920.

United Hunts Racing Association meet at Belmont Park Terminal track, May 22, 1920.

Beatrice Clafin and M.M. Van Beuren at the United Hunts Racing Association meet at Belmont Park Terminal track, Belmont, New York, May 22, 1920.

The Civil Retirement Act went into effect on this day, providing retirement for employees of the United States government.  

We're so used to thinking of this as always having existed we fail to appreciate that in fact a century ago retirement was not only not a sure thing, it was contrary to the norm.

1942   President Roosevelt orders the Selective Service registration of all male Americans residents who reach the age of 18 or 19 before June 30th or has reached the age of 20 since December 31, 1941.

1965  John Terril reappointed U.S. Marshall.

1978  The Virginian Hotel, and the Riverton Railroad Depot added to the National Registry of Historic Places.

1987  The U.S. Post Offices in Powell and Greybull added to the National Register of Historic Places.

1987  Special Session of the Legislature concludes.

1991  The 1022nd Medical Company returned to State Control.

2020  Governor Gordon orders flag's at half staff until Sunday, May 24, in honor of the victimes of the Coronavirus.  The proclamation read:

Governor orders flags be flown at half staff statewide until May 24
in honor of the victims of the novel coronavirus pandemic
CHEYENNE, Wyo. - Governor Mark Gordon, pursuant to President Donald Trump's Proclamation, has ordered both the U.S. and State of Wyoming flags be flown at half-staff statewide until sunset on Sunday, May 24, 2020 in honor of the victims of the novel coronavirus pandemic.
The Presidential Proclamation follows: 

Our Nation mourns for every life lost to the coronavirus pandemic, and we share in the suffering of all those who endured pain and illness from the outbreak. Through our grief, America stands steadfast and united against the invisible enemy. May God be with the victims of this pandemic and bring aid and comfort to their families and friends. As a mark of solemn respect for the victims of the coronavirus pandemic, by the authority vested in me as President of the United States by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, I hereby order that the flag of the United States shall be flown at half-staff at the White House and upon all public buildings and grounds, at all military posts and naval stations, and on all naval vessels of the Federal Government in the District of Columbia and throughout the United States and its Territories and possessions until sunset, May 24, 2020. I also direct that the flag shall be flown at half-staff for the same length of time at all United States embassies, legations, consular offices, and other facilities abroad, including all military facilities and naval vessels and stations.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twenty-first day of May, in the year of our Lord two thousand twenty, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred forty-fourth.


Tuesday, May 21, 2013

May 21

1865  Sioux and Cheyenne attacked three man party of troopers of the 11th Kansas lead by 2nd. Lt. W. B. Godfrey three miles above Deer Creek Station, Wyoming, while another party of fifty warriors attacked the six man 11th Kansas contingent in a nearby camp.  A party of 200 Indians drove the horse heard off at Deer Creek Station and were given chase by a 30 man contingent of troopers lead by Col Plumb, who were not able to ford the North Platte due to the spring runoff.

1888  Converse County was organized.

1898  Wyoming volunteers for the war in the Philippines arrived in San Francisco and Camp Merritt.

1903 In a speech in Portland Oregon, President Roosevelt declared: "Base is the man who inflicts a wrong, and base is the man who suffers a wrong to be done him."

1911  Porfirio Díaz and Francisco Madero sign the Treaty of Ciudad Juárez.

1918   Tagiro Tanimura of Rock Springs granted a patent for a fountain pen.

1934.  Company No. 844 of the Civilian Conservation Corps arrives at Guernsey State Park to begin work on construction projects.  Ultimately they would go on to build the Officer's Quarters at Camp Guernsey, the new National Guard facility that replaced Pole Mountain as the training range for the Wyoming National Guard.  Camp Guernsey only received one or two annual training cycles prior to World War Two, but has remained the training range since World War Two.  Now much expanded, it is also used by the U.S. Army and the United States Marine Corps for training missions.

After WWII the Guard would install Quonset Huts for the enlisted barracks, but I believe that those were recently replaced.

1942   The Odd Fellows suspended their conventions and put money for the same into war bonds.

1953  Noah W. Riley appointed U.S. Marshall for Wyoming.

1963  Wapiti Ranger Station, the first ranger station constructed in the United States at federal expense, was placed on the National Register of Historic Places.

Monday, May 20, 2013

May 20

1805  The Viceroy of Mexico ordered to compile all information concerning the true boundary between Texas and Louisiana.  Attribution:  On This Day.

1862  Congress passed the Homestead Act.

As surprising as it is now to think of it, the Homestead Act remained in force until 1932 in the lower 48.  The last patents were taken out under the various acts in the 1950s, although entries could still be made in Alaska up until some date in the 1950s.  Homesteading remained quite active in the 1919 to 1932 period, as there were efforts to encourage veterans to homestead following World War One, and there was a lot of desperate homesteading in the 1929 to 1932 time frame.  A Wyoming Supreme Court decisions on a land contest from that period actually noted that no decision could be reached, as homesteading was carving up the contested lands so fast that the decision would be obsolete by the time it was rendered.  The repeal of the act in 1932 was followed by  the failure of many of the late smaller homesteads, and a reversal of the trend.  The Federal Government reacquired many of the late homesteads by default, and actually purchased a large number of them in the Thunder Basin region of Wyoming, as it was so clear that they would fail in the droughts of the 30s.

Following up a bit, it's interesting to note that there were more homesteads taken out under the various Homestead Acts in the 20th Century than there were in 19th.  The 1914 to 1919 period saw a huge boom in homesteading.

One of the most interesting things about the act was said to me by the grandson of Russian immigrants who had homesteaded outside of Cheyenne, WY, that simply being that "it was a good deal for poor people".  I suppose that is true.

How many folks here know of a homesteading ancestor in their family?

1865  Sioux and Cheyenne attacked Three Crossings, Wyoming, which resulted in the death of one of the attacking warriors.

1874 San Francisco based Levi Strauss begian marketing blue jeans with copper rivets.

1879   Peder Bergersan of Cheyenne issued a patent for an improvement in magazine fire-arms.  Attribution:  On This Day.

1886  The Lusk Herald starts publication.  Attribution:  On This Day.

1919  Bus service initiated in Casper.

1938  First city officials elected in La Grange Wyoming.

1947  Earl C. Beeler of Baggs issued a patent for a Sickler Grinder.  Attribution:  On This Day.

1947  USS Casper sold.

1956  Northwest Community College dedicated in Powell.

Sunday, May 19, 2013

May 19

1848   Mexico ratifies the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo acknowledging the acquisition of Texas and New Mexico by the United States, which included a small portion of Wyoming, via Texas.

1846  resident Polk approved an act that provided for a line of military posts along the Oregon Trail.  In some ways, this has to be regarded as a major development in the history of the United States and the U.S. Army, as the expansion of the Army on to the Western Frontier dominated much of its character for the next century, even continuing to have an influence into its nature well after the Frontier had closed.  Attribution:  On This Day.

1866  Colonel Carrington left Fort Kearny for Fort Laramie where he received instructions from General Pope to name two new outpost along Bozeman Road Fort Philip Kearny and Fort C.F. Smith.  The widely spaced forts were to form more northerly bastions to guard the Bozeman Trail, the southernmost post, Ft. Reno, having already been established during the Civil War by Patrick Connor.  Carrington was one of a group of officers who remained in the Army following the Civil War when Congress established the policy of making room for some wartime officers who had not come from pre war military service or West Point.  Alfred Terry was another, with both men having been lawyers prior to the Civil War.  Attribution:  On This Day.

1869  Territorial government was formally in effect.  Territorial Supreme Court took the oath of office.

1871  Robert H. Milroy takes office as U.S. Marshall.

1887  Sheridan Post established.

1902  The first Carnegie Library in the United States, the Laramie County Library, opened.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1915  Dr. Amos Barber, Wyoming's second governor after statehood, whose governorship was marred by the Johnson County War and his general ineffective reaction to it, died.  Barber had a successful career as an Army surgeon before entering private practice, and he followed up on that with service again during the Spanish American War, but his having participated through acts of omission in the large cattleman's invasion of central Wyoming is principally what he is remembered for.

1919  May 19, 1919. Laramie to get a refinery, Daniels comes home, Ataturk in Samsun

Big news in Wyoming, and most particularly in Laramie, was that the Midwest Oil Company, which was very active in Natrona County, had determined to build a refinery in Laramie.

People in Laramie today may be surprised to know that this was even considered, let alone that it was actually built, which it was later that year, although the remnants of the refinery remain there.  Indeed, oddly enough, discussion has been going on for several years on how to clean the remnants of the refinery up, a project that has been ongoing, and on May 5 of this present year a legal notice regarding the final work on it was published.

The refinery operated from 1919 to 1932, making it a plant that closed during the height of the Great Depression.  The same location was later operated for a few years as a Yttrium plant, although most of the refining equipment had been removed in the 1930s.  Clean up of the site is nearly complete.

1938  Niobrara County Wyoming becomes the first county in the United States to have all of its mail for a day delivered via airmail.  Attribution: Wyoming State Historical Society.

1941  Fire destroyed three Union Pacific shop buildings in Cheyenne.  Attribution: Wyoming State Historical Society.

1987  The U.S. Post Office in Basin Wyoming, the U.S. Post Office in Buffalo the U.S. Post Office in Evanston, the U.S. Post Office and Federal Courthouse in Lander, the U.S. Post Office in Yellowstone National Park, the U.S. Post Office in Newcastle, the U.S. Post Office in Kemmerer, the U.S. Post Office in Thermopolis, the U.S. Post Office in Torrington, added to the National Register of Historic Places.

1996  A  4.2 magnitude earthquake, which your correspondent experienced, occurred 22 miles from Casper.