How To Use This Site




How To Use This Site


This blog was updated on a daily basis for about two years, with those daily entries ceasing on December 31, 2013. The blog is still active, however, and we hope that people stopping in, who find something lacking, will add to the daily entries.

The blog still receives new posts as well, but now it receives them on items of Wyoming history. That has always been a feature of the blog, but Wyoming's history is rich and there are many items that are not fully covered here, if covered at all. Over time, we hope to remedy that.

You can obtain an entire month's listings by hitting on the appropriate month below, or an individual day by hitting on that calendar date.

We hope you enjoy this site.

Friday, May 31, 2013

President Theodore Roosevelt's 1903 Horseback Travel Route Field Trip | WyoHistory.org

President Theodore Roosevelt's 1903 Horseback Travel Route Field Trip | WyoHistory.org

Re:  May 30 entry.

This would actually be a fairly doable route today.

May 31

1834  Sublette and Campbell start constructing Ft. William, which would later become Ft. Laramie.

1872  A boating club was organized in Cheyenne.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1877   Colonel Nelson Miles reports that 2,300 Sioux have surrendered at the Red Cloud and Spotted Tail Agencies over the past two months..

1903  Theodore Roosevelt attended church in Cheyenne (it was a Sunday) and lunched with Joseph Carey.

1913   The 17th Amendment to the US Constitution, providing for the popular election of U.S. senators, was declared in effect.

1916    So, on the day thousands lost their lives violently at sea, what did the local news look like? May 31, 1916
 
Well, given that the Battle of Jutland was a naval battle, we can't expect it to show up in the day's news, even the late editions, at all.

Indeed, something that's easy to forget about the battle, as we tend to think of the later battles of World War Two a bit more (which also features some large surface engagements, contrary to the myth to the contrary) is that World War One naval battles were exclusively visual in nature.

That's not to say that radio wasn't used, it most certainly was. But targeting was all visual.  And as the battle took place in the North Sea, dense fog and hanging smoke played a prominent role in the battle.

Now, we note that, as while the British and German fleets were using radio communications, they weren't broadcasting the news, and they wouldn't have done that even if it were the 1940s.  And the radio communications were there, but exclusively military.  News of the battle had to wait until the fleets returned home, which is interesting in that the Germans were closer to their ports, so closer to press outlets.  Indeed, the point of the battle was to keep the Germans in port, or at the bottom of the sea.

So, on this day of a major battle, maybe in some ways the major battle of World War One, what news did local residents see?


The death of Mr. Hill, and the draft Roosevelt movement were receiving headline treatment in Sheridan.



I'm surprised that there was a University of Wyoming student newspaper for this day, as I would have thought that the university would have been out of school by then.  Maybe not.  However.  Interesting to note that this was published the day after Memorial Day, so it was a contemporary paper.  Now, the current paper, The Branding Iron, is weekly, I think.  The crises of the times show up in the form of UWs early ROTC making an appearance on Memorial Day.
1921   Guido F. Schlote of Afton received a patent for a coat collar fastener.

1945  1,500,000 lbs of wool reported to have been shipped from Rock Springs during the last six weeks.  Wool was a vital defense fiber during World War Two as it formed the fabric used for all military uniforms used in the ETO and over half used in the Continental United States.  Only in the Pacific was cotton the dominant fiber.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1947  Ft. F. E. Warren becomes an Air Force Base.  Attribution:  On This Day.

Thursday, May 30, 2013

May 30

1834  William Sublette and William Anderson arrive at "Laramee's Fork", named for the late Jacque LaRamie, a trapper who had been killed there. The next day they lay the foundation logs for Fort William, which would be come Ft. Laramie..  Attribution:  On This Day.

1854    The territories of Nebraska and Kansas were established.  Wyoming east of the Rocky Mountains was included in the Nebraska Territory.

1862  Companies A, B, C, and D of the First Battalion of the 6th Ohio Volunteer Cavalry arrived at Fort Laramie.

1865  Cheyenne and/or Sioux attack Three Crossings Station.

1871  Wyoming Stock Growers Association, which would have an enormous impact on Wyoming's history, formed.

1901         Memorial Day becomes a national observance.

1903  Theodore Roosevelt visited Cheyenne and Laramie.  He stopped first in Laramie, where he delivered a speech at Old Main.  Invited by Rough Rider veterans to ride to the next stop, Cheyenne, he did so.



1904  Sheep rancher Lincoln Morrison shot in ambush near Kirby Creek, Hot Springs County, Wyo. He survived.  His mother, Lucy Morrison Moore, “The Sheep Queen,” offers a $3,500 reward but the attempted murderer is not discovered.

1908  The commencement of a Evanston to Denver horse race.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1916   Memorial Day, 1916
 
So, on Memorial Day, 2016, let's look back a century at Memorial Day, 1916.

Armored car in a parade in New York City.  Mounted policemen, on the left edge of the photo, truly look a lot more mobile and effective than this armored car.

This had to be a really somber Memorial Day.  World War One was raging in Europe. Ships were going down in the North Atlantic.  American soldiers were chasing Villa in Mexico. All that must have hung over the heads of the citizenry like a dark cloud.
Still, usually something goes on for this holiday. And some of it ends up on the front page of the news in anticipation of the day.  Let's see what we can find around the state and nation.  We've put one up above, a parade was held in New York City that featured a rather martial, if rather antiquated looking even then, armored vehicle.
One of the Casper papers didn't see fit to really announce anything on the front page for the day.
One of the Sheridan papers urged honoring veterans.
Another Sheridan paper did honor veterans, and of the conflict with Mexico.  Memorial Day festivities were also noted.
Interestingly, the death of Confederate John Singleton Mosby was also noted.
And Colorado National Guard officials were resigning in the wake of the Ludlow strife.  Quite a paper, all in all.
An important death figured on the front page of the Cheyenne Leader. By that time, that paper was summarizing "the War", meaning the war in Europe, on a regular basis.  Memorial Day was noted in the context of the Grand Army of the Republic, i.e., the Union troops who had fought in the Civil War (although not all joined the GAR of course).

Scandal, war and violence figured on cover of the Wyoming Semi-Weekly Tribune.
 
War and the "draft Roosevelt" movement took pride of place on the cover of The Wyoming Tribune, which also noted Memorial Day in the context of the Civil  War, which after all is what it commemorated.

1997  The USS Wyoming, SSBN 742,  successfully launched one Trident II missile during the ship's Demonstration and Shakedown Operation.

2007  Laramie's post office named after the late Senator Gale McGee.

Wednesday, May 29, 2013

President Theodore Roosevelt's 1903 Visit to Wyoming | WyoHistory.org

President Theodore Roosevelt's 1903 Visit to Wyoming | WyoHistory.org

May 29

1815  British government opens Canadian commerce to US citizens following the end of the War of 1812.

1843   John C. Fremont again departs from St. Louis to explore the West, having only recently returned from his first western expedition.

1876  Crook's forces depart Ft. Fetterman for the second time in 1876, for a summer campaign against the Sioux.

1878  John M. Thayer concludes his term as Territorial Governor.  Thayer was originally from Massachusetts but had relocated to eastern Nebraska to farm and practice law.  He served in the Civil War and was brevetted to the rank of Major General.  He was appointed Territorial Governor by President Grant, and returned to Nebraska after his term concluded.

1878  John W. Hoyt took office as Territorial Governor.  Hoyt was a polymath who had a law degree and a medical degree, had taught chemistry, and who was interested in agriculture.  He was the University of Wyoming's first president. 

1888 First Wyoming National Guard unit, the Laramie Grays, organized.

1890  The Wyoming's first Federally recognized National Guard unit formed, Company A, 1st Wyoming Regiment, the Laramie Grays.  The Laramie Grays are a short lived cavalry unit.  In spite of the absolute dependance on the horse for the economy of the region, Wyoming National Guard units were generally infantry, and then artillery, up until after World War One.

1891  The cemetery for Ft. Bridger relocated to Ft. McPherson Nebraska. 

1903  President Theodore Roosevelt made a whistle stop in Evanstson.

1904  A Natrona County boy was shot while herding sheep at Alkali Gulch. Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1912  John W. Hoyt, former Territorial Governor and first President of the University of Wyoming, died in Washington D. C.

1919  A new city  hall is opened in Casper.  The building is no longer there.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1943   “Rosie the Riveter” appeared on the cover of “The Saturday Evening Post" in an illustration by Norman Rockwell.  The concept of Rosie the Riveter would go on to virtually define the war industry employed working woman of World War Two, and would later be the subject of a very famous war poster, by another artist.  The image has gone on to later somewhat define feminism, but the image it has come to portray is inaccurate.  In truth, women were employed in war industries during World War One as well, and in some ways female labor during World War One was not only every bit as important as it was during World War Two, but more important, as women took over many roles in agriculture normally occupied by men.  The entire concept, therefore, that World War Two caused women to enter the workplace is incorrect, as the same forces were at work during World War One.


1943   Meat and cheese began to be rationed in US.

1971  A category 2 tornado injured three people in Casper.   Attribution:  On This Day.

1984  A 5.0 magnitude earthquake occurred 23 miles from Gillette.  Attribution:  On This Day.

Tuesday, May 28, 2013

May 28

1865  Cheyenne and/or Sioux attacked Elkhorn Station, Wyoming with inconclusive results.  They also attacked Sweetwater Station, Wyoming and took four horses and two mules and Pole Creek Station, Wyoming.

1869   Territorial Governor Campbell issued an order for a census of Wyoming Territory.  Attribution:  On This Day.

1900  Construction began on the Sidon Canal in the Big Horn Basin.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1902  The Virginian published.

1918  Mieli Rohkea Jartti of Glencoe patented a design for a sled attachment to an automobile.

1987  Norris, Madison, Fishing Bridge Museums and the Old Faithful Inn designated a National Historic Landmarks.Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.  Attribution:  On This Day.

Monday, May 27, 2013

Boy Scout Parade, Heart Mountain Internment Center, Memorial Day 1944.

312100_548378891872281_871553704_n.jpg (JPEG Image, 768 × 522 pixels)

Memorial Day

Observers here may have noted that I failed to put up a post for Memorial Day when this post was first made, in 2012.


This is in part due to Memorial Day being one of those days that moves around as, in recent years, Congress has attempted to make national holidays into three day weekends. That's nice for people, but in some ways it also takes away from the holiday a bit.  At the same time, it sort of tells you that if a holiday hasn't been moved to the nearest Friday or Monday, next to its original location on the calendar, it means that the holiday is either hugely important, a religious holiday, or extremely minor.  The 4th of July and Flag Day, one major and one minor, do not get moved, for example.

Anyhow, Memorial Day commenced at some point either immediately after or even during the Civil War, depending upon how you reckon it, and if you are date dependent for the origin of the holiday.  In American terms, the day originally served to remember the dead of the then recent Civil War.  The holiday, in the form of "Decoration Day" was spreading by the late 1860s.  The name Memorial Day was introduced in the 1880s, but the Decoration Day name persisted until after World War Two.  The holiday became officially named Memorial Day by way of a Federal statute passed in 1967.  In 1971 the holiday was subject to the Uniform Monday Holiday Act which caused it to fall on the last Monday of May, as it does now.

The day, therefore, would have always been observed in Wyoming, which had Grand Army of the Republic lodges since prior to statehood. But, like many holidays of this type, observation of the holiday had changed over the years.  In the 1960s and 1970s, by my recollection, the day was generally observed by people visiting the grave sites of any deceased family member, and therefore it was more of a day to remember the dead, rather than a day to recall the war dead.  This, however, has changed in recent years to a very noticeable extent.  Presently, it tends to serve as a second Veterans Day, during which veterans in general are recalled.  This year, for example, Middle School children in Natrona County decorated the graves of servicemen in the county with poppies, strongly recalling the poppy campaigns of the VFW that existed for many years.

Wyoming has a strong military culture, even though the state has lost all but two of its military installations over the years. The state had the highest rate of volunteers for the service during World War Two, and it remained strongly in support of the Vietnam War even when it turned unpopular nationwide.  The state's National Guard has uniquely played a role in every US war since statehood, including Vietnam, so perhaps the state's subtle association with Memorial Day may be stronger than might be supposed.

On remembrance, we'd be remiss if we didn't point out our Some Gave All site.

May 27

1837         James Butler "Wild Bill" Hickok, born in Homer Illinois.

1870  Indians who raided a Kansas Pacific construction crew on the 13th crossed the Union Pacific near Antelope with cavalry under Forsythe in pursuit.

1876.  The Powder River Expedition leaves Ft. Fetterman.

1893  The first electric lights in Sheridan were turned on at the Sheridan Inn.

 The Sheridan Inn, in 2012.

1898  Troop F 2nd U.S. Volunteer Cavalry, c0ming from Rock Springs, Green River and Cheyenne, mustered in at Fort Russell.  Officers and men were:  Willis F. Hoadley, Captain; Leonard L. Deitrick, first lieutenant; Thomas J. King, second lieutenant; Frank Kidd, first sergeant; Daniel B. Shields, quartermaster sergeant; John A. Jackson, George E. Artist, George Landenberger, George D. Solomon, William A. Crawford and Jeremiah Maly, sergeants; John W. Peters, Bert McClure, Angus J. Matheson, Jacob L. Parrott, Frank C. Wells, Melville W. James, Josiah H. Eardley and John E. O'Riley, corporals; Frank J. Gunther and Edward F. Ely, trumpeters; Lucius A. Place, saddler: James Paulson, wagoner.  Troopers–Benjamin Benz, Joseph Bird, Henry C. Bloom, John N. Bodendick, John E. Brooks, Samuel K. Brown, Morrison Chester, Charles W. Cole, Bert Collins, Thomas Craig, Allison Davis, Walter Durbin, Albert B. Ekdall, Max Fairbanks, William Farley, Rufus E. Garner, Frederick Hagen, Patrick W. Haley, Frank O. Johnson, Leo Leffler, Milton M Lewis, George H. McBride, James W. McGuire, Robert McKlem. Arthur Maher. Robert Manassa, Philip Michaels, William D. Moffatt, John Muir, Robert Myers, Charles O'Brien, William O'Brien, James H. Patterson, Harry N. Pauley, Walter J. Peckham, Emile Peterson, Edward Petteys, Charles A. Pierson, Ellsworth Porter, Lawrence Riordan, George G. Robinson, George W. Sadlier, Adolph C. Saunders, Edward G. Schoel, Benjamin Smith, Edgar M. Smith, Eugen Tiberghein, Frederick O. Wale.

1908   Congress passes the “Second Dick Act", part of a series of statutes that fully establish the National Guard as the reserve of the Army.  This was part  of a significant reform movement in this direction at this time, backed by National Guardsmen, who feared that the alternative was to be relegated to a species of state police for strike breaking.
Co. C. Wyoming National Guard, 1916, Powell Wyoming.

1911    Vice President Hubert H. Humphrey was born in Wallace, S.D.

1920   Frank A. Hadsell becames warden of the State Penitentiary.

1929   Pen used by President Coolidge to sign the bill creating Grand Teton National Park donated to State Museum.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.


1941  President Roosevelt proclaimed an "unlimited national emergency"..
1944 Roy Rogers bought a horse to act as a Trigger stand in, in Lusk Wyoming.
 
2011 The Jackson Hole Historical Society and Museum had the grand opening of their new museum.

2013  Memorial Day for 2013.

Sunday, May 26, 2013

May 26

1805  Corps of Discovery saw the Rocky Mountains for the first time.

1864  Montana Territory established. Wyoming was part of it at the time.

1882  The Cheyenne Opera House opened.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1882   Frank Collins Emerson born in Saginaw Michigan.  He became State Engineer in 1919 and Governor in 1927.  He would die in office in 1931.  Attribution:  On This Day.

1891  Benjamin Staunton of Douglas received a patent for a Rotary Index and Photograph-Album.

1896  The graves at the military cemetery located at LaBonte P.O., relocated to Ft. McPherson, Nebraska.

1921   Eddie Rickenbacker crashed a mail plane near Cheyenne.

1924  Lusk State Bank established.

1983  The Wyoming State Penitentiary District in Rawlins added to the National Register of Historic Places.

2000   A magnitude 4.0 earthquake occurred between Casper, Riverton and Lander.

2001   Laurence Rockefeller donated his Wyoming ranch to the national parks system.

Saturday, May 25, 2013

May 25

1865  Indian raid on stage station on Green River drives off stock.

1872  Frank Wolcott, who would later be strongly associated with the Cattleman's invasion of Johnson County, appointed U.S. Marshall.

1898  President McKinley issued a proclamation calling for 75,000 more volunteers for the  Spanish American War.

1903  In a terrible accident, an animal keeper was crushed to death by an elephant in a freight car near Medicine Bow.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1909   The Reclamation Service sold lots in Powell, founding the town.

1911  BB-32 USS Wyoming launched.

1971   Major Wiliam E. Adams, U. S. Army, performed the actions that resulted in his being awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor, but he lost his life in the process.  We was a member of the A/227th Assault Helicopter Company, 52d Aviation Battalion, 1st Aviation Brigade. He entered the service from Kansas City, Missouri but had been born in Casper on16 June 1939.  Citation: Maj. Adams distinguished himself on 25 May 1971 while serving as a helicopter pilot in Kontum Province in the Republic of Vietnam. On that date, Maj. Adams volunteered to fly a lightly armed helicopter in an attempt to evacuate 3 seriously wounded soldiers from a small fire base which was under attack by a large enemy force. He made the decision with full knowledge that numerous antiaircraft weapons were positioned around the base and that the clear weather would afford the enemy gunners unobstructed view of all routes into the base. As he approached the base, the enemy gunners opened fire with heavy machine guns, rocket-propelled grenades and small arms. Undaunted by the fusillade, he continued his approach determined to accomplish the mission. Displaying tremendous courage under fire, he calmly directed the attacks of supporting gunships while maintaining absolute control of the helicopter he was flying. He landed the aircraft at the fire base despite the ever-increasing enemy fire and calmly waited until the wounded soldiers were placed on board. As his aircraft departed from the fire base, it was struck and seriously damaged by enemy anti-aircraft fire and began descending. Flying with exceptional skill, he immediately regained control of the crippled aircraft and attempted a controlled landing. Despite his valiant efforts, the helicopter exploded, overturned, and plummeted to earth amid the hail of enemy fire. Maj. Adams' conspicuous gallantry, intrepidity, and humanitarian regard for his fellow man were in keeping with the most cherished traditions of the military service and reflected utmost credit on him and the U S. Army.


1975  Midwest incorporated.

Friday, May 24, 2013

May 24

1865  Three Cheyenne or Sioux warriors attempted to drive off the horses at Sweetwater Station, Wyoming.  One of them was killed in the process.

1869  John Wesley Powell's expedition left Green River.  Attribution:  On  This Day.

1904  President Roosevelt made the following statement in his commencement address at Groton:  "It shall profit us nothing if our people are decent and ineffective. It shall profit us nothing if they are efficient and wicked. In every walk of life, in business, politics; if the need comes, in war; in literature, science, art, in everything, what we need is a sufficient number of men who can work well and who will work with a high ideal."

1918  A Red Cross parade in Laramie drew thousands of observers and businesses were closed between 10 and 1. Attribution:  On This Day. 



1944 The University of Wyoming announces it will offer a woman's aviation program.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1968  Chief, the last U.S. Army Remount to have served in the U.S. Cavalry (as far as is known), died.

2003  UXU Ranch outside in Park County added to the National Registry of Historic Places.

Chief, The Last U.S. Cavalry Horse | Nebraska History Blog

Chief, The Last U.S. Cavalry Horse | Nebraska History Blog

See today's entry for 1968.

Thursday, May 23, 2013

May 23

1846   President Mariano Paredes of Mexico unofficially declares war on the United States.

1865  Sioux and Cheyenne raiders return to Deer Creek Station and try again.

1868  Kit Carson died at Ft. Lyon, Colorado, at age 59.

1898   Troop C  of the Second U. S. Volunteer Cavalry, "Torrey's Rough Riders", recruited in the vicinity of Laramie, mustered in at Fort D. A. Russell.  The officers and men were as follows:  George R. Shanton, captain; Morgan F. Knadler, first lieutenant; William J. Abrams, second lieutenant; Charles W. Gilmore, first sergeant; Otto Zoller, quartermaster sergeant; George S. Kline, Brutus H. Clay, Joseph T. Orr, Charles K. Harrington and Chris J. Silberg, sergeants; William A. Grosvenor, William J. Sine, Herman C. Peterson, Winter P. Hepburn, Thomas C. Hunt, Albert R. King, Mortimer McKnight and Fred C. Hecht, corporals; Herbert Wallis and Hiram F. Davis, trumpeters; Charles M. Johnson and Jonas H. Farr, farriers; Charles Trew, saddler; Willis D. Jacus, wagoner.  Troopers–Joseph Aaron, Kirt Acor, Daniel L. Aldridge, James Barber, George W. Barker, Alfred A. Benjamin, Patrick Boyle, Henry A. Brown, Harvey B. Burk, George H. Burke, Arthur W. Chesebro, DeWitt Clary, Samuel Coen, William Craver, Tony Cuerden, Frank Curren, Alfred Daykin, Charles S. Dunlap, Sidney H. Dyer, Jack Fee, Jr., Hugh A. Ferguson, Paul Flackstein, Frank Flaherty, George R. Gardner, Harry Griffin, Rasmus Hansen, Hans T. Hansen, Tim Hamlin, Frederick C. Jenkins, Samuel Johnson, William E. Johnston, Meredith Jones, Fred Kassahn, William E. King, Hans T. Kulewatz, Cornelius Lenihan, Frank A. May, Charles W. Mans, Henry S. Mapes, John C. Matheson, Christian W. Miller, Hugh M. McPhee, Andrew C. Neilsen, James U. Nisbet, Adolph A. Olsen, Perry Parish, Albert F. Price, Frank P. Price, Charles B. Peirce, John J. Schenck. Lewis Sherwood, George Schaefer, Henry Steltz, William C. Tipler, Hugh Vass, William B. Wallace. James E. Walsh, Harry H. Whitman, William C. Whittenberg.

Troop E was also mustered in, and had been recruited in the counties of Sheridan, Crook and Weston.  It's officers and men were as follows:  : Henry H. Austin, captain; Norvel H. Baker, first lieutenant; Lewis S. Magruder, second lieutenant; T. J. Gatchell, first sergeant; Daniel L. Van Meter, quartermaster sergeant; George L. Wade, Harve Springer, Patrick J. Conway, Philo Carmon, George Skinner and Robert Long, sergeants; Arthur C. Schneider, Guy Campbell, Charles S. Brown, Ellioft W. Brown, Joseph Sellers, Edward Anderson, William Hymer and Bird Moore, corporals: Truman L. Fox and Anton Jenson, trumpeters, Herman Gerdel and William McWilliams, farriers; Milo Hamilton, saddler; Frank Valentine, wagoner,  Troopers–Richard Alleyne. Guy R. Barton, Ross Bennett, Charles C. Blake, William E. Bollen, Joseph L. Bomar, Marnus J. Cannon, Peter Cannon, Edward Clark, John Cole, Russell Conger, Harry L. Cooper, Harry CosgrifT, Albert M. Crafts, James W. Croghan, John Davey, William Davis, John Davaney, Frank Dooley, Benjamin F. Draper, Arthur Evans, Benjamin Freeman, Carl Gleason, John Gurney, Clarence E. Hefiner, William J. House, Charles Hulett, Charles Kolberg, Arthur Krusee, Harry M. Krusee, Wesley Leaming, John Loafman, Finley Lowry, Roland J. Lytle, Eugene McCarthy, Henry McConaghy, James H. Magoon, William Moncriefife, Samuel B. Pohlman, Chris Rasmussen, Burl Robinett, Alonzo Robinett, Walter Robinson, James F. Rose, Charles Ross, Luther M. Roush, Warren Sawyer, Nelson Simpson, Edward J. Smith, Guy L. Smith, Archie Sollars, David Spitz, Jacob E. StaufTer, Daniel Sweeney, Robert C. Wilkerson, Paul Willitts, Charles F. Wilson, Frank E. Wood.

1903 Theodore Roosevelt, in an address to the Arctic Brotherhood in Seattle, stated: "I think we have cause to feel abundantly justified in our belief that the qualities of the old-time pioneers who first penetrated the woody wilderness between the Alleghenies and the Mississippi, who then steered their way across a vast seas of grass from the Mississippi to the Rockies, who penetrated the passes of the great barren mountains until they came to this, the greatest of all the oceans, still survive in their grandsons and successors."

1912  John Hoyt, Territorial Governor from 1878 to 1882, died in Washington D. C.

1940  The Elk Mountain School closed.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1942   Site for Heart Mountain, Wyoming, Internment camp selected.

1963   Wapiti Ranger Station was designated a National Historic Landmark.Attribution:  On This Day.

1966  Oregon Trail Ruts at Guernsey designated a National Historic Landmark.

Wednesday, May 22, 2013

May 22

1804  The Corps of Discovery departed from St. Charles, Missouri.

1843   A wagon train, made up of 1,000 settlers and 1,000 head of cattle left Independence, Missouri.on the "Great Emigration," down the Oregon Trail. 

1882  Ft. Sanders abandoned. 

1891  The Lincoln Land Company purchased the land upon which Moorcroft would be built.

1902  Medicine Bow Forest Reserve established by President Theodore Roosevelt.

1918  Four hundred Belgian soldiers passed through Wyoming over the Union Pacific Railroad on their way to the war in Europe.

1942   President Roosevelt orders the Selective Service registration of all male Americans residents who reach the age of 18 or 19 before June 30th or has reached the age of 20 since December 31, 1941.

1965  John Terril reappointed U.S. Marshall.

1978  The Virginian Hotel, and the Riverton Railroad Depot added to the National Registry of Historic Places.

1987  The U.S. Post Offices in Powell and Greybull added to the National Register of Historic Places.

1987  Special Session of the Legislature concludes.

1991  The 1022nd Medical Company returned to State Control.

Tuesday, May 21, 2013

May 21

1865  Sioux and Cheyenne attacked three man party of troopers of the 11th Kansas lead by 2nd. Lt. W. B. Godfrey three miles above Deer Creek Station, Wyoming, while another party of fifty warriors attacked the six man 11th Kansas contingent in a nearby camp.  A party of 200 Indians drove the horse heard off at Deer Creek Station and were given chase by a 30 man contingent of troopers lead by Col Plumb, who were not able to ford the North Platte due to the spring runoff.

1888  Converse County was organized.

1898  Wyoming volunteers for the war in the Philippines arrived in San Francisco and Camp Merritt.

1903 In a speech in Portland Oregon, President Roosevelt declared: "Base is the man who inflicts a wrong, and base is the man who suffers a wrong to be done him."

1911  Porfirio Díaz and Francisco Madero sign the Treaty of Ciudad Juárez.

1918   Tagiro Tanimura of Rock Springs granted a patent for a fountain pen.

1934.  Company No. 844 of the Civilian Conservation Corps arrives at Guernsey State Park to begin work on construction projects.  Ultimately they would go on to build the Officer's Quarters at Camp Guernsey, the new National Guard facility that replaced Pole Mountain as the training range for the Wyoming National Guard.  Camp Guernsey only received one or two annual training cycles prior to World War Two, but has remained the training range since World War Two.  Now much expanded, it is also used by the U.S. Army and the United States Marine Corps for training missions.

After WWII the Guard would install Quonset Huts for the enlisted barracks, but I believe that those were recently replaced.

1942   The Odd Fellows suspended their conventions and put money for the same into war bonds.

1953  Noah W. Riley appointed U.S. Marshall for Wyoming.

1963  Wapiti Ranger Station, the first ranger station constructed in the United States at federal expense, was placed on the National Register of Historic Places.

Monday, May 20, 2013

May 20

1805  The Viceroy of Mexico ordered to compile all information concerning the true boundary between Texas and Louisiana.  Attribution:  On This Day.

1862  Congress passed the Homestead Act.

As surprising as it is now to think of it, the Homestead Act remained in force until 1932 in the lower 48.  The last patents were taken out under the various acts in the 1950s, although entries could still be made in Alaska up until some date in the 1950s.  Homesteading remained quite active in the 1919 to 1932 period, as there were efforts to encourage veterans to homestead following World War One, and there was a lot of desperate homesteading in the 1929 to 1932 time frame.  A Wyoming Supreme Court decisions on a land contest from that period actually noted that no decision could be reached, as homesteading was carving up the contested lands so fast that the decision would be obsolete by the time it was rendered.  The repeal of the act in 1932 was followed by  the failure of many of the late smaller homesteads, and a reversal of the trend.  The Federal Government reacquired many of the late homesteads by default, and actually purchased a large number of them in the Thunder Basin region of Wyoming, as it was so clear that they would fail in the droughts of the 30s.


Following up a bit, it's interesting to note that there were more homesteads taken out under the various Homestead Acts in the 20th Century than there were in 19th.  The 1914 to 1919 period saw a huge boom in homesteading.

One of the most interesting things about the act was said to me by the grandson of Russian immigrants who had homesteaded outside of Cheyenne, WY, that simply being that "it was a good deal for poor people".  I suppose that is true.

How many folks here know of a homesteading ancestor in their family?



1865  Sioux and Cheyenne attacked Three Crossings, Wyoming, which resulted in the death of one of the attacking warriors.

1874 San Francisco based Levi Strauss begian marketing blue jeans with copper rivets.

1879   Peder Bergersan of Cheyenne issued a patent for an improvement in magazine fire-arms.  Attribution:  On This Day.

1886  The Lusk Herald starts publication.  Attribution:  On This Day.

1919  Bus service initiated in Casper.


1938  First city officials elected in La Grange Wyoming.

1947  Earl C. Beeler of Baggs issued a patent for a Sickler Grinder.  Attribution:  On This Day.

1947  USS Casper sold.

1956  Northwest Community College dedicated in Powell.

Sunday, May 19, 2013

May 19

1848   Mexico ratifies the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo acknowledging the acquisition of Texas and New Mexico by the United States, which included a small portion of Wyoming, via Texas.

1846  resident Polk approved an act that provided for a line of military posts along the Oregon Trail.  In some ways, this has to be regarded as a major development in the history of the United States and the U.S. Army, as the expansion of the Army on to the Western Frontier dominated much of its character for the next century, even continuing to have an influence into its nature well after the Frontier had closed.  Attribution:  On This Day.

1866  Colonel Carrington left Fort Kearny for Fort Laramie where he received instructions from General Pope to name two new outpost along Bozeman Road Fort Philip Kearny and Fort C.F. Smith.  The widely spaced forts were to form more northerly bastions to guard the Bozeman Trail, the southernmost post, Ft. Reno, having already been established during the Civil War by Patrick Connor.  Carrington was one of a group of officers who remained in the Army following the Civil War when Congress established the policy of making room for some wartime officers who had not come from pre war military service or West Point.  Alfred Terry was another, with both men having been lawyers prior to the Civil War.  Attribution:  On This Day.

1869  Territorial government was formally in effect.  Territorial Supreme Court took the oath of office.

1871  Robert H. Milroy takes office as U.S. Marshall.

1887  Sheridan Post established.

1902  The first Carnegie Library in the United States, the Laramie County Library, opened.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1915  Dr. Amos Barber, Wyoming's second governor after statehood, whose governorship was marred by the Johnson County War and his general ineffective reaction to it, died.  Barber had a successful career as an Army surgeon before entering private practice, and he followed up on that with service again during the Spanish American War, but his having participated through acts of omission in the large cattleman's invasion of central Wyoming is principally what he is remembered for.

1938  Niobrara County Wyoming becomes the first county in the United States to have all of its mail for a day delivered via airmail.  Attribution: Wyoming State Historical Society.

1941  Fire destroyed three Union Pacific shop buildings in Cheyenne.  Attribution: Wyoming State Historical Society.

1987  The U.S. Post Office in Basin Wyoming, the U.S. Post Office in Buffalo the U.S. Post Office in Evanston, the U.S. Post Office and Federal Courthouse in Lander, the U.S. Post Office in Yellowstone National Park, the U.S. Post Office in Newcastle, the U.S. Post Office in Kemmerer, the U.S. Post Office in Thermopolis, the U.S. Post Office in Torrington, added to the National Register of Historic Places.

1996  A  4.2 magnitude earthquake, which your correspondent experienced, occurred 22 miles from Casper.

Saturday, May 18, 2013

May 18

1846         American troops capture Matamoros.

1868   Fort Morgan Colorado is abandoned.  It's garrison is transferred to Fort Laramie.

1874  Captain F. Van Vliet, Company C, 3rd Cavalry, who was, at that time stationed at Ft. Fetterman, Wyoming,  wrote the Adjutant General requesting that his company be transferred because there was "...no opportunity for procuring fresh vegetables, and gardens are a failure. There is no female society for enlisted men...the enlisted men of the company are leaving very much dissatisfied, as they look upon being held so long at this post as an unmerited punishment...whenever men get to the railroad there are some desertions caused by dread of returning to this post..."

Ft. Fetterman was a hardship post and had the highest rate of insanity in the Frontier Army.  Attribution on quote:  On This Day.

1882.  Ft. Sanders, near Laramie, abandoned.  By this point in time those forts built principally to defend the Union Pacific railroad were no longer needed for multiple reasons, one being the ability of the railroad to transport troops.

1887  Cornerstone laid for State Capitol:  Attribution:  On This Day.

State Capitol circa 1950s

1898  Wyoming volunteers for service in the Philippines boarded train for San Francisco.  Attribution:  On This Day.

1898    Troop L, 2nd U.S. Vol Cav, made up of men from around Evanston and Kemmerer mustered into the United States service.  Robert A. Hocker commissioned captain; Edgar D. Shurtliff, first lieutenant; Thomas W. Davies, second lieutenant. The non-commissioned officers were: Charles E. Davis, first sergeant; George Ellis, quartermaster sergeant; Frederick Richardson, Charles Dempsey, A. C. B. Lauder, Lewis C. Marx, Martin J. Cleary and Harry Shepherd, sergeants; Henry B. Dexter, William H. Evans, Henry N. Laskey. Sylvester Whalen, Curtis Durnford, Thomas Fife. Charles F. Coggle and James Walton, corporals; William Morrow, trumpeter; William T. Lane and William R. Welch, farriers; John L. Lee, saddler; Edward C. Sims, wagoner.  Troopers–Harold R. Aniens, Case Bennett, Charles S. Beveridge, John B. Dowdige, William J. L. Carpenter, John C. Christensen, Thomas Cook, William Cook, Ralph Crumbaugh. William P. Darby, Byron C. DeLano, Norman E. Dempsey, George DeVore, Samuel J. Dickey, James Eardley. Dell GeHove, Clarence E. Gimmer, Arthur Goodman, Frank Hall, William P. Hartzell. Clarence Johnson, Joseph Johnson, Peter J. Johnson, Walter M. Johnston. Jonathan Jones, Jr., Frank Kennedy, Henry Lanstring, ClilTord W. Long, Hiram Loveday, Garrett Lowham, Joseph Lowham, William R. Lush, Lewis W. McCarl, Orin McRea, James O. Mansfield, Orson Mathews, William T. Moore, Olaf Naster, Andrew Niemela, Harry Nye, E. Perkins, Glen J. Purdy, Orin Oueal, Arthur L. Quinn, Tohn Reed, Reuben A. Robinson, Henry Scharff', John Simpson, Charles H. Smith, Samuel Stover, Calvin E. Sturm, Jesse M. Taylor, James R. Tennant, Ernest Weeks, Joseph Wilkinson.

1909  During this week, in 1909, the local Casper newspaper reported:
"Ed Gill ... Skips Out and Leaves His Sick Wife.

"Ed Gill, the fakir, dead-beat and all 'round scallawag, who inflicted the citizens of Casper several years with his presence ... and who later joined Bill Cody's Wild West show, ... was married to a young lady at Scranton, Pa., about the first of the year, and last week, after raising a $10 check to $100, ... left his sick wife with numerous unpaid bills. ... (H)e met a great many tenderfeet in the east, and he told them a great cock-and-bull story of how he was a real live sheriff in Wyoming. ... (T)he only time he was sheriff was in his fertile brain when he was guzzling booze. ... His wife writes a most pitiful letter to the TRIBUNE, asking that we assist her to locate him. ... But when, if ever, the wife knows him as well as do the people of Casper, she will be tickled half to death that he has gone. ... He is not fit for any woman to waste tears over."
Seems that not everyone in the Wild West Show was a sterling character.

1911         Porfirio Diaz flees to Paris with gold and mistresses.

1917  The U.S. Congress passed the Selective Service act allowing for the conscription of soldiers.

Congress Passes the Selective Service Act of 1917 and the Wyoming Guard gets the word
 
On this day, in 1917, Congress passed, finally, a much debated selective service act, ushering in a new era of "the draft".

The bill passed was massive and covered a plethora of topics.

At the same time, the mobilized and mobilizing Wyoming National Guard got the news that it would be taken into Federal service in July.



The odd thing about this is that the National Guard in Wyoming, and pretty much everywhere else, had been called out just as soon as war was declared.  But the government did not Federalize it right away.  Another example of how things were quite a bit different in World War One as compared to World War Two.
1933     The Tennessee Valley Authority was created.

Friday, May 17, 2013

May 17

1876  7th Cavalry departs Ft. Lincoln on campaign.  Family members gathered to watch them leave the post as the band played martial music.  Quite a few of the troopers would never return.

1888  Douglas chosen as the county seat for Converse County.  Attribution: Wyoming State Historical Society.

1902  Rock Springs hits its record high temperature, 112F.

1921  Laramie's  Elmer Lovejoy patented a Trackage for Ceiling Type of Doors with Door-Openers (Patent No. 1,378,123). Attribution:  On This Day.

1928  Mother Featherlegs Monument dedicated in Lusk.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

2009  A 3.9 magnitude earthquake occurred 15 miles west-northwest of Jeffrey City.  Attribution:  On This Day.

Thursday, May 16, 2013

May 16

1846         Battle of Campeche at which the Texas Navy defeats the Mexican fleet.

1885  Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show appeared in Chicago.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1905  The  Acme Consolidated Gold & Mining Company incorporated in Wyoming.

1918  The Sedition Act of 1918 passed by the U.S. Congress making criticism of the government an imprisonable offense of 20 years or fined $20,000.  Attribution:  Western History Center.

1946  USS Wyoming decomissioned.


1985  The Downtown Rawlins Historic District added to the National Register of Historic Places.

1986  The Cokeville Elementary School crisis occurred  when David Young, and Doris Young took 167 hostages, 150 children and 17 adults, one being an unlucky UPS driver, at the school by bringing in a bomb which the couple attached a lanyard to themselves with.  David Young had been the town marshal, but had been fired for his odd erratic behavior.  Doris Young had been a cafe worker in the town he had met while living there.  David Young claimed to be acting as a revolutionary, but part of his demands included $300 M dollars.  Doris Young accidentally detonated the bomb while her deluded husband was using a restroom. He returned and murdered her, and then killed himself, after wounding a teacher. All of the hostages survived, many leaving the classroom through the windows after the blast.  The incident is extremely unusual in that it was associated with a very large number of reports of the presence of angels seconds prior to the blast, who, according to those present, directed everyone to the far side of the room near the windows.

1991  The Lake Hotel on Lake Yellowstone added to the National Register of Historic Places.

Wednesday, May 15, 2013

May 15

1872  Bill Cody tracked down three Indians committing "depredations" and killed them in the ensuing engagement near North Platte, Nebraska.

1885 Louis Riel surrenders to Middleton's troops; North West Rebellion ends after 100 days.

1888 Voters chose Douglas as the county seat of Converse County.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1889  State mental hospital opened in Evanston.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1898  Pioneer Jim Baker died.

1930 Ellen Church, the first airline stewardess, went on duty aboard a United Airlines flight from San Francisco and Cheyenne, Wyo.

1942   Gas rationing limits US motorist to 3 gallons per week, except for those in critical industries.

1944  It was announced that Italians soldiers brought into the US as POWs would receive technical training at Ft. F. E. Warren.  By this time, the Italians were no longer prisoners, as Italy had first surrendered and then declared war on the Axis powers.  A fair number of Italian POWs had been brought into the US due to combat in North Africa and Sicily.  In Wyoming, Italians were held in at least one location, that being the POW camp at Douglas.  They painted the murals there, which still exist in the one surviving building from the POW camp.  Attribution:  On This Day.

1944 USS Crook County commissioned.

1975  F. E. Warren (D. A. Russell) designated a National Historic Landmark District.  Attribution:  On This Day.

1978  Significant flooding occured throughout the state resulting in over $15,000,000  in damage in 1978 dollars.

1986  The Jack Creek Guard Station outside of Saratoga added to the National Register of Historic Places.

1990  The Remount Ranch in Laramie County added to the National Register of Historic Places.  It had been owned by Mary O'Hara, author of My Friend Flicka.  Her husband at the time had raised Remounts for sale to the Army, although the ranch largely raised sheep.

Tuesday, May 14, 2013

May 14

1804  The Corps of Discovery leaves St. Louis to explore Louisiana.  Louisiana had only belonged to the US, at that point, for one year.

1836  Treaties of Velasco executed by General Antonio López de Santa Anna and Texas provisional president David Burnett recognizing the independence of Texas.  It did not fix the boundaries of Texas and Mexico refused to recognize the treaty.  Attribution:  On This Day.

1890  Weston County elects its first County officers.

1906  The Uinta County Library opened in Evanston.  Attribution:  On This Day.

1918   Hazime Fukuda of Arminto awarded a patent for a rice based breakfast food.

1987  McDonald Ranch in Laramie County added to the National Registry of Historic Places.

2007  Trappers Point Site in Sublette County added to the National Registry of Historic Places.

Monday, May 13, 2013

May 13

1846     The United States officially declared that a state of war existed with Mexico.

1882  The Ft. Steele hospital burned.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1907  The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that a popular vote in 1892 concerning the location of the "Agricultural College of Wyoming" was advisory thereby keeping the University of Wyoming in Laramie, rather than moving it to Lander.  Attribution:  On This Day.

1912  The first political conventions in the state to nominate presidential electors took place in Cheyenne:  Attribution:  On This Day.

1919  Movie star and recent veteran of the U.S. Army (artillery officer in WWI), Tim McCoy becomes the Adjutant General for the Wyoming National Guard.  In that capacity, he receives a brevet rank of Brigadier General at age 28.  He retained that position until 1921 when, I believe, it reverted to extraordinarily long serving Gen. Esmay, who had held it prior to WWI, with some interruption.

McCoy was also ranching in Wyoming during this time frame.  He ran for the US Senate in Wyoming in 1942 but lost, rejoining the Army as an officer the day after his defeat.  He served in the Army Air Corps in Europe during WWII and reportedly never returned to Wyoming after the war.

Evincing a surprising lack of sentiment about horses for a film star of this early era, McCoy is know to have remarked that he was not sentimental about horses, and that "If you want to know the truth - horses are dumb."

1943  A measles epidemic was raging in the state.  As everyone in my family has the stomach flu today, I can sympathize with epidemics.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

Sunday, May 12, 2013

May 12

1865  Col Thomas Moonlight's expedition of the recently arrived 11th Kansas Cavalry reaches the Wind River in Wyoming, but fails to encounter the Cheyenne who were raiding west of Ft. Laramie that he was searching for.

1920  The Wyoming National Guard was reconstituted as the First Regiment, Wyoming Cavalry.

1922  A spring blizzard hit northeastern Wyoming.  Attribution:  On This Day.

Saturday, May 11, 2013

May 11

1846  Congress declared war on Mexico.

1929   A Laramie group advocated prohibition of women's figures on cigarette advertisements.  Cigarettes themselves did not become common for the most part until after World War One, which popularized them as they were distributed free to soldiers.  Prior to that, smokers tended to smoke cigars and pipes.  Smoking by women was uncommon, and considered improper.  In the 1920s, cigarette smoking by women expanded due to the social atmosphere of the time, although it was still considered sensational.

1950  The remains of Big Nose George Parrot were found by workmen working on the Rawlins National Bank.  Parrot's remains had been given to Dr. John Osborne, who was later elected Governor, for study.  Osborne stored the body in a salted whiskey barrel, and eventually buried the whiskey barrel in they yard behind his office.  The entire story of the treatment of Parrot's body following his execution is shocking my modern standards, including the means of finally laying them to rest until this date in 1950.

1916   The Punitive Expedition: The March 11, 1916 news
 

Friday, May 10, 2013

May 10

1868 The first train enters Laramie.

1869 A golden spike was driven at Promontory, Utah, marking the completion of the first transcontinental railroad in the United States.

1890 Laramie policemen instructed to stay out of saloons unless specifically called in to act in them.

1868  A Remount arrives at Ft. Leavenworth Kansas from St. Louis, where it will be named Comanche.  It received the U.S. brand upon its arrival, but it would be soon sold for $90.00 to an officer of the 7th Cavalry, Miles Keogh.

Comanche is repeatedly, if inaccurately, claimed to be the "sole survivor" of the Custer's command at the Little Big Horn, which ignores of course that many of the men in Custer's command served with Reno and Benteen that day, and only the men under his direct field command were killed in the battle.  It further ignores that many 7th Cavalry horses were just carted off by the Sioux and Cheyenne who used them, with the presence of many 7th Cavalry horses being noted by the Northwest Mounted Police after the Sioux crossed into Canada.  Inquires by the NWMP as to whether the U.S. Army wished for the NWMP to recover the horses were met with a negative reply, although at least one of the horses was purchased by a Mountie and owned privately.


1893 The Supreme Court of the United States rules in Nix v. Hedden that a tomato is a vegetable, not a fruit, under the Tariff Act of 1883.


1899 Fred Astaire was born in Omaha, Neb.

1910  Powell incorporated.

1917   John J. Pershing informed he is to lead American troops in France.
 
I've backed off nearly daily entries from 1917 here, now that we no longer have the Punitive Expedition to follow, and returned more of the traditional pace and focus of the blog, but there are exceptions and today is one.


On this day, in 1917, John J. Pershing, recently promoted to Major General, was informed by Secretary of War Newton Baker that he was to lead the American expeditionary force in France.
This now seems all rather anticlimactic, as if the appointment of Pershing was inevitable, and perhaps it was, but he was not the only possible choice and his selection involved some drama, to some extent.  Pershing was then 56 years old, an age that would have put him in the upper age bracket for a senior office during World War Two, but not at this time in the context of World War One.  Indeed, his rise to Major General had been somewhat unusual in its history and course, as he had earlier been advanced over more senior officers in an era when that was rare, and it is often noted that his marriage to Helen Warren, the daughter of powerful Wyoming Senator Francis E. Warren, certainly did not hurt his career.  Often regarded as having reached the pinnacle of his Army career due to "leading" the Army during the Punitive Expedition, he was in fact technically second in command during that event as the commander of the department he was in was Frederick Funston.
Funston is already familiar to readers here as we covered his death back in  February.  Not really in the best of health in his later years, but still a good five years younger than Pershing, Funston died suddenly only shortly after the Punitive Expedition concluded leaving Pershing his logical successor and the only Army officer then in the public eye to that extent.  Indeed, as the United States was progressing towards entering the war it was Funston, a hero of the Spanish American War, who was being considered by the Wilson Administration as the likely leader of a US contingent to Europe.  His sudden death meant that his junior, Pershing, took pride of place.
But not without some rivals.  Principal among them was Gen. Leonard Wood, a hero of the later stages of the Indian Wars and the Spanish American War who was a protégée of Theodore Roosevelt.  Almost the exact same age as Pershing, Wood was backed by Republicans in Congress for the position of commander of the AEF.  Not too surprisingly, however, given his close association with Roosevelt, he was not offered the command.  Indeed, it was this same week when it became plain that Roosevelt was also not to receive a combat command in the Army, or any role in the Army, for the Great War, to his immense disappointment.
Pershing went on, of course, to command the AEF and to even rise in rank to the second highest, behind only George Washington, rank in the U.S. Army.  That alone shows that he was an enormous hero in his era. He lived through World War Two and in fact was frequently visited by generals of that war, many of them having a close military association with him from World War One.  His personality dramatically impacted the Army during the Great War, so much so that it was sometimes commented upon to the effect that American troops were all carbon copies of Pershing.  Still highly regarded by most (although some have questioned in recent years his view of his black troops) he is far from the household name he once was for the simple reason that World War Two has overshadowed everything associated with World War One.

1928  A Federal law enforcement officer is murdered in the line of duty by a bootlegger, near Wyoming's white lighting center of Kemmerer.

1944 Tom Bell, the founder of the Wyoming Outdoor Council, wounded in action in a B-24 mission over Austria.  He wold loose his right eye as a result of his injuries.

1954 Bill Haley and His Comets release "Rock Around the Clock".

Thursday, May 9, 2013

May 9

1868  Union Pacific completed tracks to Laramie.

1886  The legislature approved the creation of a mental hospital in Evanston.

1887   Buffalo Bill Cody's Wild West Show opens in London.

1892  USS Wyoming sold.

1911   Susan Wissler elected Mayor of Dayton, the first woman to be elected as a mayor in Wyoming.  She lived a long, but hard, life, having come to Wyoming with her husband and children in 1900.  Her husband died in 1906 and she did not remarry. She was a millner by trade, but employed in Dayton as a school teacher.  In her later years she was in constant ill health, but she lived to age 85.  She served as mayor for two years.

1916  President Woodrow Wilson mobilizes the National Guard of Arizona, New Mexico and Texas to patrol their borders with Mexico.

1945  Ratification in Berlin-Karlshorst of the German unconditional surrender of May 8 in Rheims, France.  Marshal Georgy Zhukov sings for the Soviet Union, Sir Arthur Tedder, British Air Marshal and Eisenhower’s deputy for SHEAF, Colonel-General Hans-Jürgen Stumpff as the representative of the Luftwaffe, Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel as the Chief of Staff of OKW, and Admiral Hans-Georg von Friedeburg as Commander-in-Chief of the Kriegsmarine.  The Channel Islands are liberated by the British after five years of German occupation.  U.S. officials announced that the midnight entertainment curfew was being lifted immediately.  Herman Goering taken prisoner by the U.S. Seventh Army in Bavaria. Karl Frank, the Nazi administrator in Czechoslovakia surrendered to the U. S. army near Pilsen, Czechoslovakia.

1950  President Truman spoke at the dedication of Kortes Dam.

Wednesday, May 8, 2013

May 8

1541    Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto reached the Mississippi River.

1846 General Zachary Taylor defeats a superior Mexican force in the Battle of Palo Alto,  War had not yet been declared.

1860  Captain W. F. Raynolds' expedition left Deer Creek.  It's intention was to follow the Wind River to its headwaters and then cross a divide to the headwaters of the Yellowstone.Attribution:  On This Day.

1868  Union Pacific completed tracks to Ft. Saunders.  Attribution:  On This Day.

1877   The first Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show opens.

1880  Soft drink bottling plant opens in Laramie.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1915  An earthquake occurred in northern Yellowstone National Park.

1938  Alcova Dam on the North Platte completed.

1945    .The German surrendered becomes official.  President Harry S. Truman announced in a radio address that World War II had ended in Europe.  End of the Prague uprising.  Hundreds of Algerian civilians are killed by French Army soldiers in the Sétif massacre, ushering in what would ultimately become the French Algerian War.  In day two of rioting, 10,000 servicemen in Halifax Nova Scotia loot and vandalize downtown Halifax during VE-Day celebrations.

1946  Wyoming Game & Fish districts created.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1973    Militant American Indians who had held the South Dakota hamlet of Wounded Knee for 10 weeks surrendered.

Tuesday, May 7, 2013

May 7

1824   The Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas was created.  Attribution:  On This Day.

1868  Treaty signed with the Crows at Ft. Laramie.  It stated:
Articles of a treaty made and concluded at Fort Laramie, Dakota Territory, on the seventh day of May, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-eight, by and between the undersigned commissioners on the part of the United States, and the undersigned chiefs and head-men of and representing the Crow Indians, they being duly authorized to act in the premises.
ARTICLE 1.
From this day forward peace between the parties to this treaty shall forever continue. The Government of the United States desires peace, and its honor is hereby pledged to keep it. The Indians desire peace, and they hereby pledge their honor to maintain it. If bad men among the whites or among other people, subject to the authority of the United States, shall commit any wrong upon the person or property of the Indians, the United States will, upon proof made to the agent and forwarded to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs at Washington City, proceed at once to cause the offender to be arrested and punished according to the laws of the United States, and also re-imburse the injured person for the loss sustained.
If bad men among the Indians shall commit a wrong or depredation upon the person or property of any one, white, black, or Indian, subject to the authority of the United States and at peace therewith, the Indians herein named solemnly agree that they will, on proof made to their agent and notice by him, deliver up the wrong-doer to the United States, to be tried and punished according to its laws; and in case they refuse willfully so to do the person injured shall be re-imbursed for his loss from the annuities or other moneys due or to become due to them under this or other treaties made with the United States. And the President, on advising with the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, shall prescribe such rules and regulations for ascertaining damages under the provisions of this article as in his judgment may be proper. But no such damages shall be adjusted and paid until thoroughly examined and passed upon by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, and no one sustaining loss while violating, or because of his violating, the provisions of this treaty or the laws of the United States shall be re-imbursed therefor.
ARTICLE 2.
The United States agrees that the following district of country, to wit: commencing where the 107th degree of longitude west of Greenwich crosses the south boundary of Montana Territory; thence north along said 107th meridian to the mid-channel of the Yellowstone River; thence up said mid-channel of the Yellowstone to the point where it crosses the said southern boundary of Montana, being the 45th degree of north latitude; and thence east along said parallel of latitude to the place of beginning, shall be, and the same is, set apart for the absolute and undisturbed use and occupation of the Indians herein named, and for such other friendly tribes or individual Indians as from to time they may be willing, with the consent of the United States, to admit amongst them; and the United States now solemnly agrees that no persons, except those herein designated and authorized so to do, and except such officers, agents, and employés of the Government as may be authorized to enter upon Indian reservations in discharge of duties enjoined by law, shall ever be permitted to pass over, settle upon, or reside in the territory described in this article for the use of said Indians, and henceforth they will, and do hereby, relinquish all title, claims, or rights in and to any portion of the territory of the United States, except such as is embraced within the limits aforesaid.
ARTICLE 3.
The United States agrees, at its own proper expense, to construct on the south side of the Yellowstone, near Otter Creek,
a warehouse or store-room for the use of the agent in storing goods belonging to the Indians, to cost not exceeding twenty-five hundred dollars; an agency-building for the residence of the agent, to cost not exceeding three thousand dollars; a residence for the physician, to cost not more than three thousand dollars; and five other buildings, for a carpenter, farmer, blacksmith, miller, and engineer, each to cost not exceeding two thousand dollars; also a school-house or mission-building, so soon as a sufficient number of children can be induced by the agent to attend school, which shall not cost exceeding twenty-five hundred dollars.
The United States agrees further to cause to be erected on said reservation, near the other buildings herein authorized, a good steam circular saw-mill, with a grist-mill and shingle-machine attached, the same to cost not exceeding eight thousand dollars.
ARTICLE 4.
The Indians herein named agree, when the agency-house and other buildings shall be constructed on the reservation named, they will make said reservation their permanent home, and they will make no permanent settlement elsewhere, but they shall have the right to hunt on the unoccupied lands of the United States so long as game may be found thereon, and as long as peace subsists among the whites and Indians on the borders of the hunting districts.
ARTICLE 5.
The United States agrees that the agent for said Indians shall in the future make his home at the agency-building; that he shall reside among them, and keep an office open at all times for the purpose of prompt and diligent inquiry into such matters of complaint, by and against the Indians, as may be presented for investigation under the provisions of their treaty stipulations, as also for the faithful discharge of other duties enjoined on him by law. In all cases of depredation on person or property, he shall cause the evidence to be taken in writing and forwarded, together with his finding, to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, whose decision shall be binding on the parties to this treaty.
ARTICLE 6.
If any individual belonging to said tribes of Indians, or legally incorporated with them, being the head of a family, shall desire to commence farming, he shall have the privilege to select, in the presence and with the assistance of the agent then in charge, a tract of land within said reservation, not exceeding three hundred and twenty acres in extent, which tract, when so selected, certified, and recorded in the “land book,”as herein directed, shall cease to be held in common, but the same may be occupied and held in the exclusive possession of the person selecting it, and of his family, so long as he or they may continue to cultivate it.
Any person over eighteen years of age, not being the head of a family, may in like manner select and cause to be certified to him or her, for purposes of cultivation, a quantity of land not exceeding eighty acres in extent, and thereupon be entitled to the exclusive possession of the same as above directed.
For each tract of land so selected a certificate, containing a description thereof and the name of the person selecting it, with a certificate endorsed thereon that the same has been recorded, shall be delivered to the party entitled to it by the agent, after the same shall have been recorded by him in a book to be kept in his office, subject to inspection, which said book shall be known as the “Crow land book.”
The President may at any time order a survey of the reservation, and, when so surveyed, Congress shall provide for protecting the rights of settlers in their improvements, and may fix the character of the title held by each. The United States may pass such laws on the subject of alienation and descent of property as between Indians, and on all subjects connected with the government of the Indians on said reservations and the internal police thereof, as may be thought proper.
ARTICLE 7.
In order to insure the civilization of the tribe entering into this treaty, the necessity of education is admitted, especially by such of them as are, or may be, settled on said agricultural reservation; and they therefore pledge themselves to compel their children, male and female, between the ages of six and sixteen years, to attend school; and it is hereby made the duty of the agent for said Indians to see that this stipulation is strictly complied with; and the United States agrees that for every thirty children, between said ages, who can be induced or compelled to attend school, a house shall be provided, and a teacher, competent to teach the elementary branches of an English education, shall be furnished, who will reside among said Indians, and faithfully discharge his or her duties as a teacher. The provisions of this article to continue for twenty years.
ARTICLE 8.
When the head of a family or lodge shall have selected lands and received his certificate as above directed, and the agent shall be satisfied that he intends in good faith to commence cultivating the soil for a living, he shall be entitled to receive seed and agricultural implements for the first year in value one hundred dollars, and for each succeeding year he shall continue to farm, for a period of three years more, he shall be entitled to receive seed and implements as aforesaid in value twenty-five dollars per annum.
And it is further stipulated that such persons as commence farming shall receive instructions from the farmer herein provided for, and whenever more than one hundred persons shall enter upon the cultivation of the soil, a second blacksmith shall be provided, with such iron, steel, and other material as may be required.
ARTICLE 9.
In lieu of all sums of money or other annuities provided to be paid to the Indians herein named, under any and all treaties heretofore made with them, the United States agrees to deliver at the agency house, on the reservation herein provided for, on the first day of September of each year for thirty years, the following articles, to wit:
For each male person, over fourteen years of age, a suit of good substantial woolen clothing, consisting of coat, hat, pantaloons, flannel shirt, and a pair of woolen socks.
For each female, over twelve years of age, a flannel skirt, or the goods necessary to make it, a pair of woolen hose, twelve yards of calico, and twelve yards of cotton domestics.
For the boys and girls under the ages named, such flannel and cotton goods as may be needed to make each a suit as aforesaid, together with a pair of woollen hose for each.
And in order that the Commissioner of Indian Affairs may be able to estimate properly for the articles herein named, it shall be the duty of the agent, each year, to forward to him a full and exact census of the Indians, on which the estimate from year to year can be based.
And, in addition to the clothing herein named, the sum of ten dollars shall be annually appropriated for each Indian roaming, and twenty dollars for each Indian engaged in agriculture, for a period of ten years, to be used by the Secretary of the Interior in the purchase of such articles as, from time to time, the condition and necessities of the Indians may indicate to be proper. And if, at any time within the ten years, it shall appear that the amount of money needed for clothing, under this article, can be appropriated to better uses for the tribe herein named, Congress may, by law, change the appropriation to other purposes; but in no event shall the amount of this appropriation be withdrawn or discontinued for the period named. And the President shall annually detail an officer of the Army to be present and attest the delivery of all the goods herein named to the Indians, and he shall inspect and report on the quantity and quality of the goods and the manner of their delivery; and it is expressly stipulated that
each Indian over the age of four years, who shall have removed to and settled permanently upon said reservation, and complied with the stipulations of this treaty, shall be entitled to receive from the United States, for the period of four years after he shall have settled upon said reservation, one pound of meat and one pound of flour per day, provided the Indians cannot furnish their own subsistence at an earlier date. And it is further stipulated that the United States will furnish and deliver to each lodge of Indians, or family of persons legally incorporated with them, who shall remove to the reservation herein described, and commence farming, one good American cow and one good, well-broken pair of American oxen, within sixty days after such lodge or family shall have so settled upon said reservation.
ARTICLE 10.
The United States hereby agrees to furnish annually to the Indians the physician, teachers, carpenter, miller, engineer, farmer, and blacksmiths as herein contemplated, and that such appropriations shall be made from time to time, on the estimates of the Secretary of the Interior, as will be sufficient to employ such persons.
ARTICLE 11.
No treaty for the cession of any portion of the reservation herein described, which may be held in common, shall be of any force or validity as against the said Indians unless executed and signed by, at least, a majority of all the adult male Indians occupying or interested in the same, and no cession by the tribe shall be understood or construed in such a manner as to deprive, without his consent, any individual member of the tribe of his right to any tract of land selected by him as provided in Article 6 of this treaty.
ARTICLE 12.
It is agreed that the sum of five hundred dollars annually, for three years from the date when they commence to cultivate a farm, shall be expended in presents to the ten persons of said tribe who, in the judgment of the agent, may grow the most valuable crops for the respective year.
W. T. Sherman,
   Lieutenant-General.
Wm. S. Harney,
   Brevet Major-General and Peace Commissioner.
Alfred H. Terry,
   Brevet Major-General.
C. C. Augur,
   Brevet Major-General.
John B. Sanborn.
S. F. Tappan.
Ashton S. H. White, Secretary.
Che-ra-pee-ish-ka-te, Pretty Bull, his x mark. [SEAL.]
Chat-sta-he, Wolf Bow, his x mark. [SEAL.]
Ah-be-che-se, Mountain Tail, his x mark. [SEAL.]
Kam-ne-but-sa, Black Foot, his x mark. [SEAL.]
De-sal-ze-cho-se, White Horse, his x mark. [SEAL.]
Chin-ka-she-arache, Poor Elk, his x mark. [SEAL.]
E-sa-woor, Shot in the Jaw, his x mark. [SEAL.]
E-sha-chose, White Forehead, his x mark. [SEAL.]
—Roo-ka, Pounded Meat, his x mark. [SEAL.]
De-ka-ke-up-se, Bird in the Neck, his x mark. [SEAL.]
Me-na-che, The Swan, his x mark. [SEAL.]
Attest:
George B. Wills, phonographer.
John D. Howland.
Alex. Gardner.
David Knox.
Chas. Freeman.
Jas. C. O'Connor.

1898  Elmer Lovejoy demonstrated his automobile in Laramie.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1901  Gary Cooper, actor, born in Montana.

1915  Lusitania sunk by German U-boat.

1942  It was announced that the state faced a cricket epidemic.  Attribution: Wyoming State Historical Society.

1942  The Wyoming State Journal reported the state free of illegal stills, which would make sense since prohibition had been over with for some time. Attribution: Wyoming State Historical Journal.

1945  Germany surrendered to the Allies, making this Victory in Europe Day.