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How To Use This Site


This blog was updated on a daily basis for about two years, with those daily entries ceasing on December 31, 2013. The blog is still active, however, and we hope that people stopping in, who find something lacking, will add to the daily entries.

The blog still receives new posts as well, but now it receives them on items of Wyoming history. That has always been a feature of the blog, but Wyoming's history is rich and there are many items that are not fully covered here, if covered at all. Over time, we hope to remedy that.

You can obtain an entire month's listings by hitting on the appropriate month below, or an individual day by hitting on that calendar date.

We hope you enjoy this site.

Sunday, March 31, 2013

March 31

Today is Easter Sunday for 2013.

The April 8 entry on this blog has a discussion of how the date for Easter is determined.

1888  Elwood Mead, the predominate force in Wyoming's water law, took office as State Engineer.

1918 Daylight Savings Time went into effect throughout the U.S. for the first time.

1933 Congress authorized the Civilian Conservation Corps.

1942  Tim McCoy, Western actor and Wyoming, announced his candidacy for the U. S. Senate.  His campaign would not be a successful one and he entered the Army for the second time after losing in the primary.

1961  Detroit Transits Wyoming Terminal reopened as a bus terminal.

2004  Financial considerations caused the Wyoming Territorial Prison Corporation to cease operations.  The old State Prison would be transferred to the State's parks department the following day.

Elsewhere:

1879  Governor Lew Wallace asks for the Federal Government to declare martial law in Lincoln County, New Mexico.

1916  Battle of Aqua Caliente.

1939  Britain and France issue guarantees that they will declare war if Poland is invaded by Nazi Germany.

2016   Coal layoffs and Northwest Wyoming
 
Peabody Coal Company, the world's largest coal producer, and Arch Coal have announced layoffs in the Gillette area which amount to a combined 450 jobs lost.  And the losses won't stop there.  With that many jobs lost the local economy in Campbell County will be undoubtedly impacted.  Additionally, a loss of that many jobs clearly indicates big changes in operations at the mines themselves, and the energy infrastructure in Campbell County, which is what the economy of the county is based on, will be hit.  It's unlikely, therefore that the job losses will stop there.
This is a rim news for the area economy.  And for the state.  School funding is principally based on the coal severance tax.  Without ongoing major coal production, the schools are in big trouble.
Moreover, this may reflect such a major shift in the economics of coal that there may never be a return to its former position in the economy, either nationally or locally.  Wyomingites have been quick, in some quarters, to blame regulation and the current Administration for coal's demise.  One of the interviewed miners blamed the event on regulation and expressed the thought that things wold turn around under a new Presidential administration.  Our Superintendent of Public Instruction mentioned budget problems, in a recent op-ed, as being due to "the war on coal".  But people shouldn't fool themselves.  This likely represents a shift so deep in the economics and culture of coal that current events show an existential change much deeper than merely a current White House discontent with it.  
Indeed, even twenty years ago I was told by an energy company executive that "coal is dead".  I was surprised by his view at the time, but he was quite definite in his views.  But he was expressing an energy sector long term view, at that time, that coal wouldn't survive a switch to other forms of power generation.  Ironically natural gas, of which North America has a vast abundance, has really eaten into the coal market and that's not going to change.  Power plants take years to build and years to permit.  Coal fired plants are being built, they're being retired.  This not only won't change overnight, it won't change at all.  The coal industry itself pinned its hopes on the Chinese market, which uses a lot of coal, but China also has a lot of coal.  The Chinese economy is in the doldrums right now, and that will likely change, but when it does the question is whether China will enter an economic period mirroring Japan's long endured slow economy, or change to a more growth oriented but volatile economy like North America's and Europe's.  And a bigger question is whether China, which is under pressure from much of the rest of the world on emissions, will itself move away from coal.  It hasn't so far, but there's no guaranty that it will not.  Coal, to the extent it retains any popularity (and that's little outside of the coal producing states), is popular only in the US and China.  Indeed, in some areas of the US it is now so unpopular that efforts to ship coal by sea to China were opposed in Pacific maritime states, something that had not been worked out at the time the local coal producers went into this slump.
So chances are high that this is a sea change, not a downturn.  And if it is, it's one that has huge implications for the state.  The state didn't deal with them in the last Legislature, or even really discuss dealing with them. By the next one it will have no choice.

Saturday, March 30, 2013

March 30

1889  Butch Cassidy participates in a bank robbery in Denver with the McCarty brothers.

1891  The Shoshone National Forest was set aside by President Benjamin Harrison as the Yellowstone Park Timberland Reserve.

1909. On this day, the U.S. Army abandoned Ft. Washakie. The post had previously been also known as Camp Brown and Camp Augar.. The post had lately been a 9th Cavalry post.

The facilities for the post remain in large part today, having gone over to the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Ft. Washakie, the town, is the seat of government for the Wind River Indian Reservation. The structures provide good examples of the period stone construction used by the Army at that time.


Ft. Washakie during a visit by President Arthur in 1883.


Some former cavalry structures at Ft. Washakie now in use as industrial or storage buildings.

1915  A quarantine on Wyoming livestock was put in place due to an outbreak of hoof and mouth disease.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1916  The Punitive Expedtion: The Casper Daily Press, March 30, 1916
 

1943  Lead by legendary UW basketball player Kenny Sailors, UW beat Georgetown 46 to 34 in Madison Square Gardens.  Sailors would enter the Marine Corps as an officer at the conclusion of that year.  UW would suspend basketball due to the war after that year.  Sailors eventually became a hunting guide in in Alaska, but returned to Wyoming in his old age, where he still lives, following the death of his wife.

1952  The ICC approved the abandonment of the Wyoming Railway between Clearmont and Buffalo.

2003  Teno Roncolio, Wyoming Congressman, and the last Democrat to have occupied that office, died in Cheyenne.

2009  The Wyoming Range Legacy Act signed into law by President Obama. 

2016  President Obama commuted the sentence of Angela  LaPlatney and 61 other prisoners.  She was a Casper resident who was sentenced to 20 years for possession of illegal drugs with the intent to sell the same and for hiding a man who was subject to a felony charge.  Her sentence will now end on July 28.  President Obama has commuted a large number of sentences during his time in office.

2016  Wyoming was hit by a massive Spring snowstorm that shut down much of the state, including offices in Cheyenne and, ironically, Casper's ski area.

Friday, March 29, 2013

March 29

1879  The Laramie County Stock Growers Association changed its name to the Wyoming Stock Growers Association.  The WSGA was to be a major political force early in the state's history.

1887  The following soldiers, stationed at posts in Wyoming, earned the Congressional Medal of Honor for action on this day:

Second Lieutenant Lloyd M. Brett, 2d U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At O'Fallons Creek, Mont., 1 April 1880. Entered service at: Malden, Mass. Born: 22 February 1856, Dead River, Maine. Date of issue: 7 February 1895. Citation: Fearless exposure and dashing bravery in cutting off the Indians' pony herd, thereby greatly crippling the hostiles.

 Brett in later life.

Captain Eli L. Huggins, 2d U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At O'Fallons Creek, Mont., 1 April 1880. Entered service at: Minnesota. Birth: Illinois. Date of issue: 27 November 1894. Citation: Surprised the Indians in their strong position and fought them until dark with great boldness.

1888  State Capitol completed. Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society. 

1906  Construction at Pathfinder Dam suffered a set back due to flood damage.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1916   The Punitive Expedtion: The Casper Daily Press, March 29, 1916
 


I think one of the most interesting items in this edition was the addition of extra train service, showing how extensive it really was at the time.

1999     The Dow Jones industrial average closed above 10,000 for the first time.

2016   Waiting for the Storm
 
We're supposed to be getting a huge storm today and tomorrow.

I sure hope so.

These photographs were taken on March 20 in the foothills of the Big Horns:

Foothills of the Southern Big Horns

Elk carcass in the foreground.

Should be snow this time of year.  Not a good sign.
There should be snow everywhere in the photos.  And right now maybe there is, it's snowed since them. But we sure need more.

Thursday, March 28, 2013

March 28

1845   Mexico dropped diplomatic relations with US.

1846   US troops move onto the left bank of the Rio Grande River.

1865   The District of the Plains was established.  Attribution:  On This Day.

1870  Camp Augur reorganized and renamed Camp Brown.

1906  An ore mill at Encampment burned. Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1908  Fifty-nine people killed in a mine explosion at Hanna.  Attribution:  On This Day.

1916   The Punitive Expedition: The Casper Daily Press, March 28, 1916
 

Note in this one the fruit and vegetable advertisement.  Quite a difference in regards to how available these things are today.
1970  The location of Ft. Reno placed on the National Register of Historic Sites.

1975   A 6.2 earthquake occurred about 93 miles from Evanston, WY.

1982  The Sheridan County Historical Society transferred title in the Trail End Historical Center to the State of Wyoming.

2008 Gray wolves removed from the Endangered Species List.

Wednesday, March 27, 2013

March 27

1836  Mexico takes the Goliad and executes 417 Texans.

1889   Francis E. Warren was reappointed the Territorial Governor.  Attribution:  On This Day.

1890  A party of "disappointed" Washington emigrants settled on Horse Creek in Laramie County.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1890  The House of Representatives passed the bill for Wyoming Statehood. 

1916   The Punitive Expedition: Casper Daily Press. March 27, 1916
 

1964  Earthquake occurred near Van Tassell.

1909  The Trustees of the University of Wyoming fired the university's president.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

Tuesday, March 26, 2013

March 26

1804  The District of Louisiana, including most of Wyoming, established by an act of the U.S. Congress. Attribution:  On This Day.

1882  Frederic Remington's drawings published for the first time.

1890  Territorial Delegate Joseph M. Carey introduced a bill calling for Statehood for Wyoming.

1891  Joel Ware Foster took office as the State's first Bank Examiner. 

1895  The University of Wyoming Alumni Association founded.

1898  Miners in Diamondville formed a union. Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society. 

1918  Elmer Lovejoy of Laramie patented a powered garage door opener.  Lovejoy had previously built his own automobile.

1926  Game and Fish planted 27 pairs of Hungarian Partridges.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1932  A magnitude 6 earthquake happened near Jackson.

1943  Wyoming beat Oklahoma, 53 to 50, in basketball.

1992  Big Horn Academy Building in Cowley added to the National Registry of Historic Places.

1993  The T A Ranch, scene of the siege of the Invaders during the Johnson County War, added to the National Registry of Historic Places.

TA Ranch.

Monday, March 25, 2013

March 25

1877  Deadwood stage driver and the son of Cheyenne's marshall, Johnny Slaughter, killed by outlaws two miles outside of Deadwood.

1879  Little Wolf surrenders to cavalry commanded by Cpt. W. P. Clark.  Little Wolf had fought in many significant Plains Indians battles including, it is believed, the Fetterman Fight.

1891  An opium raid was conducted in Newcastle.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1909  A well near Byron came in as a gusher. Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society. 

1915  Arminto Wyoming incorporated.  Arminto was a major sheep shipping point in the 20th Century and, at one time, more sheep were shipped from its stockyards, where they were loaded on trains, than any other place in the world.

Today, with the decline in the American sheep industry, Arminto is nearly a ghost town, with just a few remaining residents.  Here's a scene from just outside of the town.  The town's once busy railhead is now just a rail crossing.

1916   The Punitive Expedition: Casper Daily Press, March 25, 1916.
 

Sunday, March 24, 2013

March 24

1825 Texas officially opened to American settlers.

1834 John Wesley Powell born.

1890 School at St. Stephens opened. Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1916   The Punitive Expedition: Casper Daily Press, March 24, 1916
 

1917   The Cheyenne State Leader for March 24, 1917: Germans raising army in Mexico?
 


It's odd to see how focused on Mexico the US remained as it started to rush towards war with Germany.  In today's leader we learn, supposedly, that Germans were flooding in from Guatemala to form an army in Mexico.

Something like that, you'd think, would be fairly easy to notice.
1934 Rodeo promoter, race horse owner, and rancher Charles Irwin funeral in Cheyenne, Wyoming. Gen. Pershing was one of his honorary pallbearers.

Irwin is little recalled today, but he was a major entertainment figure during his lifetime. He is sometimes mentioned as possibly having a role in Tom Horn's attempted escape from the Laramie County jail, but there's little evidence to suggest that is true, and Irwin never commented on it. His weight climbed enormously in his later years, and as a result a special coffin had to be built for the 5'4" 500 lbs Irwin. He died at 59 years of age, from injuries sustained in an automobile accident, with the automobile having been driven by his son in law.

1939  Earl Durand killed while robbing a bank in Powell.  Durand has been popularized in legend as a latter day mountain man and the "Tarzan of the Tetons".  In reality, he was a Powell area farm kid with a fair degree of woodcraft knowledge, a not atypical set of regional skills then or later. He was arrested in the early spring of 1939 for poaching but broke out of jail and then took a deputy sheriff and town marshal hostage and forced them to  his parents home, where he killed them.  He lived in the mountains for a period of days, and then chose to rob the Powell bank for reasons that remain debated.

1966 The Selective Service announced the enactment of college deferments based on performance.
Elsewhere:

1883     Long-distance telephone service was inaugurated between Chicago and New York City.

1944   76 Allied officers escaped Stalag Luft 3, which was later the topic of Paul Brickall's book "The Great Escape."

1975 The North Vietnamese commence the offensive that would defeat the Republic of Vietnam.

Saturday, March 23, 2013

March 23

1806  Corps of Discovery leaves Fort Clatsop, Oregon.

1882  Oscar Wilde delivered a short speech on the Union Pacific Depot platform in Cheyenne. The UP depot there remains, and is self declared to be the most beautiful depot in the world. Whether or not that is true, it is undoubtedly a beautiful structure.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical sociey

1888  Ella Watson, remembered as Cattle Kate, filed for the patent on her homestead located on the Sweetwater, near the homestead of Jim Averell.

1911 The first insurance company in the state founded.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1916  Teno Roncalio, Wyoming Congressman, born in Rock Springs.  The son of Italian immigrants, he was a decorated veteran of World War Two who graduated with a law degree from the University of Wyoming in 1947.  He served as the prosecuting attorney for Laramie County for many years before entering politics. 

1916   The Punitive Expedition: The Casper Daily Press, March 23, 1916
 
Let's look at the entire evening paper this go around.


This is the first issue of the Casper evening paper in which a story about the troops in Mexico is not on the first page, since the raid on Columbus.



The editor was casting doubts on the distance between Villa and Carranza.


I've never even heard of Wyoming Light Lager.


1923 The start of thirteen minor shocks that were felt  at Kelly from March 23 to April 12, 1923.

1935  The first grazing district formed under the Taylor Grazing Act created, that being Wyoming Grazing District Number 1.

1942     The U.S. government began moving Japanese-Americans from their West Coast homes to detention centers which would ultimately include Heart Mountain, near Cody.

2016  Governor Mead directs the Attorney General of Wyoming to start proceedings to remove the Sublette County Sheriff after the Sublette County Commission requests the same.  Wyoming's governors have this power, but its use is extraordinarily rare.  The most pronounced examples came during Prohibition and a current use of this power is almost unheard of.  The Sublette County Sheriff has been the subject of controversy surrounded some expenditures associated with his office that were incurred for the department but prior to his being officially in office.


2016.  Perhaps showing how contested the election season really is this year, former President Bill Clinton and Senator Bernie Sanders both planned whistle stop tours in Wyoming on this day, but both had to cancel due to the massive spring storm that shut down the Interstate and which closed the Denver airport for most of the day.  Clinton was to have campaigned for his wife in Cheyenne, which by early morning was impossible to get in and out of, and Sanders was to have campaigned in Casper and Laramie.  At least Sanders has indicated an intent to return to the state prior to the Democratic Convention taking place.

2016  For the first time since 2000, Wyoming's unemployment rate is higher than the national average.

The unemployment rate only comes in a little above 5%, which shows how high the rate of employment is statistically in the country right now.   This is high enough nationwide that we fit into what used to be regarded as technical full employment.  It's never possible to have 100% employment.  In recent years, however, figures in this area have been regarded in a negative light and some claim the actual nationwide rate of employment is higher.

At any rate, the real unemployment rate in Wyoming is undoubtedly higher.  Natrona County has a 7.2% unemployment rate and Carbon County has a 6% unemployment rate.  Both counties are energy dependent for their economies, as is of course the state generally.  Given as Wyoming had a high migrant employment rate in recent years the high unemployment rate now probably reflects a significant degree of reverse migration, so the actual rate is likely much higher than what we're now seeing reported.

Friday, March 22, 2013

March 22

1836  The Texas schooner Liberty seized the U.S. brig Durango in Matagorda Bay. Attribution:  On This Day.

1881   "Big Nose" George Parott lynched in Rawlins.  He was being held for murder and his lynching followed an attempted jail break in which he injured jailor Robert Rankin.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1881  The first telephone exchange in Wyoming established.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society. 

1882     Congress outlawed polygamy.  Only Utah had recognized it at any point.  In this time in Wyoming's history, the traditional "heart balm" statutes remained, which outlawed, amongst other things, unmarried cohabitation.

1889  President Harrison appointed Francis E. Warren as Territorial Governor, Warren's second period of occupancy of that position.

1916   The Punitive Expedition: Casper Daily Press. March 22, 1916
 

1933  President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed a measure to make wine and beer containing up to 3.2 percent alcohol legal.

1972  Congress passed the Equal Rights Amendment, but it did not become law as it did not acquire the sufficient number of state ratifications.

2007  Grizzly Bears removed from the Endangered Species list.  Attribution:  On This Day.

Thursday, March 21, 2013

March 21

1790     Thomas Jefferson took office as America's first Secretary of State.  


Jefferson, a collection of contradictions, had been opposed to a strong Federal government prior to his presidency but would turn out to be a zealous applicant of Federal power while President.  Amongst his decisions were the purchase of Louisiana, a vast wilderness, which Jefferson thought would take 1,000 years to settle.  Following purchase of the territory he would order the formation of the Corps of Discovery, a military expeditionary force, to explore a route to the Pacific through it.  Contrary to widespread popular belief, the Corps's members were not the "first white men" to arrive in most of the locations that they arrived in, but they were the first official representatives of the United States.  A person has to wonder to what extent his views on U.S. expansion were formed during his period as Secretary of State.

1804     The Code Napoleon adopted in France and its possessions.  A form of the Code applies to this day in Louisiana.

The Code was a codification of then existing French common law, which had been  heavily influenced by Roman law.  It's the model form of law in much of the world.  It was commissioned by Napoleon Bonaparte to attempt to resolve the irregular nature of French law, a condition that similarly resulted in the earlier Roman Code Justinian.

1806  The Corps of Discovery started their trip back east.

1836     Mexicans capture Copano, Texas.

1862  Ben Holladay bought the Russell, Majors & Waddell stage line.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1890  Gen. George Crook, age 61, died while lifting weights.  Crook was a legendary Indian Wars' general, and later in life an advocate for Indians.  By most accounts, he was one of the most successful and thoughtful of the Indian Wars' campaigners, although he does have his critics.   Crook County Wyoming is named after him.

Crook, seated in middle, during the Civil War while serving under Sheridan, second from left.  Also depicted, General Wesley Merritt, far left, General James Forsyth second from right and General Custer far right.  All of these officers went on to post Civil War careers in the Army.

1899  The Wyoming Historical Society Museum in Cheyenne opened.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1916   The Punitive Expedition in the Press: Casper Daily Press for March 21, 1916.
 


Note how the horror of World War One has made its way back onto the front page of the newspaper.
1931  University of Wyoming geology professor S. H. Knight took these photographs of the Grand Canyon.

1954  Cheyenne's KFBC-TV Channel 5 started broadcasting.  Attribution:  On This Day.

2012  American Heritage Center, UW, Wyoming History Day  District 6 (Hot Springs, Fremont, and Teton Counties) competition in Dubois and District 7 (Uinta, Sweetwater, Lincoln, and Sublette Counties) in Pinedale.

Elsewhere:

1943  The second military conspiracy plan to assassinate Hitler in a week fails.  A week earlier, German military conspirators attempted to blow up an airplane in which Hitler was traveling, but the fuses failed to work.  On this instance, a volunteer officer was to carry bombs and get next to Hitler as he reviewed memorials,  Hitler's visit to the memorials turned out to be too short for the fuses to ignite, so the plat was not carried off.

2016:  University of Wyoming basketball coach Larry Shyatt resigned.

Wednesday, March 20, 2013

Sidebar: The Irish in Wyoming

Just recently we posted our "green" edition of this blog with our St. Patrick's Day entry.  Given that, this is a good time to look at the Irish in Wyoming.

The Irish are a significant demographic, in terms of ancestry, in the United States in general, so a reader might be justifiably forgiven for thinking that the story of the Irish in Wyoming wouldn't be particularly unique, or perhaps even that such an entry must be contrived.  This would be far from the case, however, as the Irish were not only an identifiable element in European American settlement of the state, but a distinct one with a unique history.

 Bantry Bay, Ireland; where many of Wyoming's Irish came from.  This photo was taken between 1890 and 1900.

It may not be definitely possible to tell when the first Irishman or Irish American entered the state, but a pretty good guess would be that the very first son of Erin entered what would become the state in the service of the U.S. Army.  More particularly, it seems like that this would have been with the Corps of Discovery, that body of men commissioned by the Army to cross the continent from St. Louis to the Pacific Ocean.  Sgt. Patrick Gass was definitely of Irish descent, although he himself came from Pennsylvania.  He's unique as he left the first literary work on the expedition.  George Shannon was of Irish Protestant descent and therefore, perhaps, arguably "Scots Irish," although his name would suggest otherwise.   The Corps, however, crossed the continent prior to the great migration caused by the Famine, and therefore its almost surprising that these men of Irish descent were on the expedition, as the Irish were a small demographic at the time.  Also revealing, at this time many, probably most, whose ancestors had come over from Ireland were of "Scots Irish" descent, those being descendant from the Scots population that the English had settled in Ireland to form a religious and ethnic barrier between themselves and the native inhabitants of the conquered country.

The fact that the first Irish Americans to enter the region, however, came in the form of soldiers was telling, as by the 1840s this was becoming coming common.  Up until that time the U. S. Army had been tiny and had very little presence on the Frontier at all.  The Mexican War, however, changed all of that and, at the same time, brought a flood of Irishmen into the enlisted ranks.  This was caused by the contemporaneous jump in immigration from Ireland at the time, which was coincident with a huge spike in German immigration as well.  There was a political element to both immigration waves, with the Irish being discontent with the United Kingdom, which disadvantaged them at law with statutes aimed against Catholics and with some German immigrants coming during the troubled times on the continent that would lead to European wide revolutions in the 1840s.  The Irish in particular, however, were also driven by extreme poverty and hunger as their disadvantaged state was further compounded by extreme crop failures in this period.  Taking leave to the United States or British Canada, many simply chose to get out of Ireland.  Upon arriving in the United States, still oppressed with poverty, and often just downright oppressed, many took a traditional employment route which was to enlist in military service.  Like their ethnic cousins the Scots, the Irish were not in actuality a particularly martial people, but standing armies provided an economic refuge for them.  In the United Kingdom this resulted in Irish and Scots regiments of the British Army.  In the United States, starting during the Mexican War, it resulted in a huge percentage of the enlisted ranks being made up of Irish volunteers.

 World War One vintage recruiting poster for "The Fighting 69th", a New York National Guard regiment legendary for being recruited, even as late as World War One, principally from Irish immigrants and and Irish Americans. At least one Canadian unit of the same period, the Irish Canadian Rangers, was specifically aimed at Montreal Irish.

The Irish, and the Germans, were at first resented in the service, even if their enlistments were accepted, and they were very much looked down upon by Southern born officers, who made up a disproportionate percentage of the Army's office class.  This had, in part, sparked a high desertion rate during the Mexican War and had even contributed to the formation of a unit in the Mexican Army made up of Irish and German desertions, the San Patricio's.  The Army, however, in what may be the first instance of a long U. S. Army tradition of adapting to social change ahead of the general population, made peace with the Irish enlisted men by war's end and they soon became an enduring feature of the Army.  By the time of the Civil War things had changed so much that there were now Irish American and Irish born officers in the Regular Army, such as Irish American Philip Sheridan, after whom Sheridan Wyoming and Sheridan County Wyoming are named. 

 "Little Phil" Sheridan, far left.  Sheridan was born to Irish immigrant parents, but his ties with Ireland were so strong that it is sometimes erroneously claimed he was born in Ireland.  The Irish American Cavalryman was honored in Wyoming with a town and county being named after him.  Oddly enough, in later years a 20th Century Catholic priest who was a relative of his would also serve in Wyoming.

This change started to take place almost as soon as the Mexican War was over, and was well established by the time the Civil War broke out.  Already by that time many rank and file members of the Army were Irish born and there were Irish American officers of note.  The controversial Patrick Connor provides one such example, with Connor having a major campaigning role in Wyoming during the Civil War period.  After the war ended, the post Civil War U. S. Army was full of Irish and German volunteers.  The list of the dead, for example, at Little Big Horn reads like an Irish town roster, so heavy was the concentration of the Irish born in its ranks.  Indeed, the Irish in the 7th Cavalry, and other U.S. Army units, had a permanent impact on American military music during the period, contributing such martial tunes as Garryowen and The Girl I Left Behind Me to the American military music book.

The controversial Patrick E. Connor, who campaigned in Wyoming, not always widely, but very aggressively, during the Civil War.

Irish born and raised 7th Cavalry officer, and former Swiss Guard, Myles Keogh.

After Irish soldiers came the Irish railroad workers, who arrived with the construction crews of the Union Pacific.  The role of Irishmen in the construction of the railway is well known. Along with other ethnic minorities, the Irish were strongly represented in the crews that made their way through the state in the late 1860s.  As towns came up along the rail line, some of these men would inevitably leave the employment of the railroad and take up residence in other occupations.  Cheyenne, Laramie, Medicine Bow, Rawlins, Green River, Rock Springs, and Evanston all share this Union Pacific source of origin.

Former railroad station in Medicine Bow, with the Virginian Hotel to the far left.

After the railways started to come in, cattle did as well. Rail lines were, in fact, a critical element of the conversion of the United States from a pork consuming to a beef consuming country, as rail was needed in order to ship cattle to packing houses in the Mid West.  Rail expanded into Wyoming at exactly that point in time at which the greatly expanded herds in Texas started to be driving out of that state.  Prior to that time, while beef was certainly consumed, it tended to be a local product and pig production provided the primary meat source in the United States, along with poultry, foul and wild game.  Texas' cattle had been raised primarily for their hides not their beef.  The Civil War, however, had seen an uncontrolled herd expansion which, with the war's end, became a nearly free resource, if a way of sending the cattle to central markets could be found.  The expansion of the rail lines soon provided that, and the long trail drive era was born..  And with the cattle, came some Irish cowhands, and ultimately Irish ranchers.

Ireland itself was nearly completely dominated by agriculture in the 19th Century, and indeed it was for most of the 20th Century.  Agriculture was the largest sector of the Irish economy as late as the 1990s.  In the 19th Century, as with every century before that, most Irish were rural and agricultural.  Looked at that way, employment in non agricultural activities really meant that most of the Irishmen taking them up were leaving their natural born employments for something else.

Moreover, while we today tend to think of Ireland exclusively in terms of potatoes, due to the horror of the famine, in reality the Irish have a very long association with horses and cattle.  In pre Christian Ireland, stealing cattle was virtually a national sport, and the great Irish epic work, the Cattle Raid of Cooley (Táin Bó Cúailnge)  concerns that activity.  In later years, during English occupation, potatoes became an Irish staple because Irish farmers tended to grow them for themselves, by necessity, while still often working production crops on English owned lands.  Even as late as the famine Ireland exported wheat to the United Kingdom.  Cattle raising never stopped, and indeed by World War One Ireland was a significant beef exporter to the Great Britain.  The same is also true of sheep, which were raised all over Ireland for their wool and meat, and giving rise to the idea that all Irish are clad in tweed at all time, a concept that also applies to the sheep raising Scots.

 The dramatic protagonist of the Cattle Raid of Cooley.

Horses, for their part, were and remain an Irish national obsession.  Unlike the English and Scots, whose routine farmers had little interest in riding stock, the Irish developed an early love of horse riding and everything associated with it. The Steeple Chase was and is an Irish national sport, followed intensively even now, and in earlier eras widely engaged in.  A person has to wonder, therefore, if the heavy Irish representation in cavalry formations in the U.S. Army of the 19th Century reflected that fact.  It certainly did in the English Army, which had at least one Irish cavalry regiment up until Irish independence.


All of this made the Irish a people that was particularly inclined to go into animal husbandry.  Other agricultural Europeans, except perhaps the Scots, had less exposure to this sort of agriculture than the Irish did.  It's no wonder therefore, that the Irish were well represented amongst 19th Century cowboys and, ultimately, amongst small scale 19th Century and 20th Century ranchers.  Indeed, in more than one occasion, Irish immigrant ranchers were able to convert humble beginnings into enormous agricultural enterprises.  One such example was that of Patrick J. Sullivan, an Irish immigrant who started ranching sheep near Rawlins. As his ranch grew, he moved to Casper and became a wealthy man from sheep ranching, which then translated into politics as he became Mayor of Casper, and ultimately a U.S. Senator upon the death of Francis Warren.  Sullivan had come a long way from his humble beginnings in Bantry Bay.  His Irish roots were reflected in the balcony of the large house he built in Casper, which featured a shamrock on the banister of the widow's walk, although that feature is now gone.



No story about the Irish in the United States would be complete without noting the role that Irish born clerics played, as the Irish were always closely identified with the Catholic Church, a fact which ultimately was pivitol in Ireland's independence following World War One.  In Wyoming, the presence of the Irish guaranteed the presence of the Catholic Church, and in many areas, but not all, Irish born parishioners and Irish American parishioners were the largest segment of any one congregation (although, again, this is not true everywhere in Wyoming).  Because the church was essentially a missionary church in Wyoming, the Church relied for decades on Irish priests.  The first Bishop of the Diocese of Cheyenne was the Irish born Maurice Burke, who served from 1887 until 1893, and who had to defend his Diocese from hostility from nativist elements, which were strong at the time.  He was succeeded by Thomas Lenihan, who was also Irish born.  Irish born priests continued to be very common well into the 20th Century and it only came to a slow close after World War Two, although at least one Irish born retired priest in residence remains at St. Patrick's in Casper.

In a state where they were fairly strongly represented, it's perhaps not surprising that the Irish were able to have some success in politics in the state even though there remained a strong anti Catholic prejudice in much of the United States prior to World War One.  Indeed, at least according to one source, some early Irish businessmen and politicians in the State made efforts not to make their Catholicism generally well known and were muted about their faith, being aware of the prejudice that existed against ti.  None the less, as the example of Patrick Sullivan provides, there were successful Irish born and Irish American politicians in the state fairly early.  Sullivan may provide the best early example, but others are provided by mid 20th Century politicians Joseph O'Mahoney and Frank Barrett.

An identifiable Irish presence in the state remained through most of the 20th Century, but by the last decade of the 20th Century it began to fade, as Irish immigrants aged and began to pass on.  Some still remain, but the era of Irish immigration to Wyoming is over.  Like most of the United States, a residual Irish influence lingers on in subtle ways, and in the memories of Irish descendants, many of whom, perhaps most of whom, can also claim ancestry from other lands by now.  But the impact of the Irish on the state, while not as open and apparent as it once was, continues on, and always will, given their significant role in the the 19th and 20th Century history of the state.

March 20

Today is the first day of Spring.

1836 Texan garrison of Goliad surrenders to the Mexican Army.

1876  The Chugwater division station on the Cheyenne to Black Hills stage line was established.  This is notable do a degree in that another 1876 event, the Battle of Powder River, had just occurred, in a year that would later see the Battle of the Rosebud and the Battle of Little Big Horn, showing that the region was far from settled.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1884  Laramie incorporated. Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1895  An explosion at the Red Canyon Mine in Almy killed 61 miners.  Attribution:  On This Day.

1916   The Punitive Expedition in the Press: Casper Daily Press for March 20, 1916
 

1917   The Wyoming Tribune for March 20, 1917. Colorado Cavalry at Ft. Russell. Lack of coat lethal?
 

Wyoming was contemplating adding cavalry to its National Guard, but Colorado had it.

Colorado cavalrymen were disembarking at Ft. D. A. Russell.  They were demobilizing late in comparison to the Wyoming National Guard.

And one Wyoming National Guardsmen wouldn't be called back up for World War One.  He'd died of pneumonia.

Pvt. Charles Schmidt of Company B, Lander Wyoming, had become ill after having to turn in his overcoat at Ft. D. A. Russell.  Apparently a lot of men were sick, and that likely explains the delay we recently read about in discharging from active service the men from Laramie, who made up the medical company.

March in Wyoming is cold and these papers have had stories of a cold spell being in the works in this time frame.  It seems a lot of men were sick and frankly viruses going through troops is a pretty common thing in military units.  Overcoats were an item of equipment, not a uniform item, which may sound odd to readers who have no military experience, but that's exactly how field jackets were viewed when my father served in the Air Force during the Korean War and how they were viewed when I was in the National Guard in the 1980s.  The National Guard had denied that it was taking the coats from the men when the story broke, but obviously there was some truth to the story for some units.

Would an overcoat have kept Pvt. Schmidt alive?  It sure couldn't have hurt.
1922 President Harding ordered U.S. troops back from the Rhineland.


Often forgotten, the troubles that commenced with the Mexican Revolution and more particularly the raid on Columbus, NM, continued, and remained a focus for the U.S. military. All Guard units, including Wyoming's, had ceased border service, however, with the start of World War One.

1995  An earthquake measuring 4.2 occurred 95 miles from Green River, WY.

2003 At 5:34 AM Baghdad time on 20 March, 2003 (9:34 PM, 19 Mar 2003, EST) the Iraq Invasion began.  Wyoming's Army National Guard would see service in this war with Iraq.

Tuesday, March 19, 2013

March 19

1864  Charles Russell born.  The Missouri born artist would move to Montana at a young age and leave a record of unique and accurate depictions of ranching on the Northern Plains.

1868  Sioux led by Crazy Horse attacked Horsecreek Station, which is on the Wyoming Nebraska border

1890  A party of wagon traveling emigrants stopped at La Grange to inquire about the availability of land.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1917     The Supreme Court upheld the eight-hour work day for railroads.

1918     Congress approved daylight-saving time thereby dooming legions of commuters to biannual time adjustments.

 

1919  St. Luke's Episcopal Church in Buffalo achieves regular self support parish status.

1920     The U.S. Senate rejected the Treaty of Versailles for a second time.


1942   President Roosevelt ordered men between 45 and 64 to register for non military duty.

1952   The 1,000,000th Jeep was produced.  One of the first popular civilian 4x4 vehicles, the Jeep had, of course, started off as a military car.  The 4x4 revolutionized the ranching industry in Wyoming, although principally through the introduction of the 4x4 truck, not the Jeep.  The Power Wagon had also received its start as a military vehicle.  The Dodge Power Wagon would be the first widespread 4x4 truck to be used in the ranching industry, and up until quite recently a fair number of Wyoming ranches were still using Power Wagons purchased in the 40s and 50s.

 1958 Willys M38A1 Army Jeep, that I once owned.  My first car.

The 4x4 also revolutionized wintertime travel in Wyoming and allowed for winter access to the backcountry for many people, including many town people, for the first time during the winter months.

Early Dodge Power Wagon 1/2 ton Army vehicle, on the Laramie Plains, 1985.  This variant was rapidly replaced by a 3/4 ton variant, as this variant proved too top heavy and therefore unstable.

Elsewhere:  

1931     Nevada legalized gambling.

1953     The Academy Awards ceremony was televised for the first time.

1966   The South Korean Assembly votes to send 20,000 additional troops to Vietnam to join the 21,000 already serving there.

Monday, March 18, 2013

March 18

1836 Hudson's Bay Company paddle wheel steamer Beaver arrives at Fort Vancouver becoming the first steamboat on the Pacific Coast.

1883 Cheyenne newspapers report on a shocking total of 37 executions within a reportable time frame having been conducted by vigilantes.

1886  Edwin Booth, the brother of John Wilkes Booth, appeared in a Cheyenne production of Hamlet in the title role.

1916:  The Punitive Expedition: The Casper Daily Press, March 18, 1916
 

1917  The Laramie Boomerang for March 18, 1917. Extra Edition
 
Pancho Villa was poised to attack Chihuahua again, which made the front page of the Laramie Boomerang, but which surely didn't cause the extra edition. The increasingly disastrous Atlantic news was causing that.


1918  The City of Casper reported twenty two arrests during the weekend, perhaps because of an outbreak of excessively boisterous St. Patrick's Day celebrations.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1921  Spotted Horse post office established.  Spotted Horse was a Crow leader, and the junction is named for him.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1929  The coal mine at Cambria was closed.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1931  Legendary University of Wyoming geology professor S. H. Knight took these photographs.

1942 US Army Engineers start building Alcan (Alaska) Highway.  I've been surprised how many times I've met Wyomingites from that era who worked on it in some capacity.

1968 The U.S. Congress repeals the requirement for a gold reserve to back US currency.

1974 The oil embargo against the US by oil producing Arab states, called in protest of U.S. support of Israel during the 1973 October War, is lifted. U.S. dependency on Arab oil was already well known to the government, given successful efforts to have the Arabs keep the price of oil from rising during later stages of the Vietnam War.

1983  The Redlick (Chambers) Lodge added tot he National Registry of Historic Places.   Attribution:  On This Day.

1994  The Triceratops was adopted as the official State Dinosaur.

2003  A major snowstorm blanketed Wyoming and Colorado.

Elsewhere:

1892    Former Canadian Governor General Lord Stanley says he will donate a silver challenge cup as an award for the best hockey team in Canada.

1931 Schick Inc. marketed the first electric razor.

1938   Mexico nationalizes all oil properties of the US and other foreign-owned companies.

Sunday, March 17, 2013

March 17: St. Patrick's Day

Today in St. Patrick's Day.  The feat day falls on the anniversary of his death in Saul, Ireland, in the year 461 or 493. 

St. Patrick is the Patron Saint of Ireland Wyoming has a relatively large Irish community with the Irish being significant in the ranching industry in particular well in to the mid 20th Century.  Almost every region of the state had Irish ranchers with many Irish ranches being established in the late 19th Century and early 20th Century.  Irishmen were prominent in both the cattle and sheep industries.

In some communities the day was recognized by celebratory parties in the Irish community and in organizations associated with them.  In Casper, for example, the Knights of Columbus hosted a St. Patrick's Day party for many years.  This is less the case today, but the Irish in Wyoming still are part of the state's cultural heritage.

Irish American Wyomingites have figured prominently in other fields as well, and have notably contributed to politics and law in the state.  Wyoming has contributed one Irish American, Mike Sullivan, to the Ambassadorship to Ireland.  The former Governor Sullivan was Ambassador to Ireland during the Clinton Administration. 

1863   Thomas Francis Meagher, eclectic Irish revolutionary and general of New York volunteers during the Civil War, who would later go on to become Territorial Governor of Montana (and ultimately who would be lost in the Missouri River when he fell over, while ill, on a mission to receive firearms for the Montana Militia), hosted a St. Patrick's Day celebration for his command.







1869  Carbon post office established.  Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1876     Gen. Crook raids Cheyenne and Oglala Sioux camps in the  Battle of Powder River, in Montana.  The conditions of this campaign were grueling and the weather dropped to -40F during the campaign.  Crook had taken to the field from Ft. Fetterman on March 1 and marched north.  Blizzard conditions slowed their march.  On March 16 Crook divided his command sending part of it away under the command of Col. John J. Reynolds, following an Indian trail, and with one days rations.  Shortly before dawn on March 17 his scouts located a large Indian village on the west bank of Powder River. The Cheyenne camp of 600 was 600 to 1,000 feet below the soldiers, who were on a high plateau. Reynolds led his men and horses down the bluffs to form an attack, but only with great difficulty due to the terrain.. He ordered Company K to make a charge with drawn pistols through the village but he failed to support this attack with the rest of his command, and the warriors quickly escaped to the bluffs to the north, where they raked the unit with fire, allowing the women in children in camp to make their escape, and soon join a Sioux village that was nearby.  They left, however, lots of firearms, ammunition, and food.

By 9:00 a.m., Reynolds had full possession of the abandoned village and he ordered it destroyed.  He then withdrew 20 miles southward to the mouth of Lodge Pole Creek, where he was to rejoin General Crook. The village and supplies proved difficult to burn and the resulting exploding ammunition proved to be a hazard to the troops.  By 2:30 p.m. the command began to withdraw to Lodge Pole Creek, arriving at 9:00 p.m., in a greatly exhausted condition.  The withdrawal was conducted in a somewhat hasty fashion and Reynolds left three dead troopers who were subsequently mutilated by the returning Indians. Crook was not at the established rendezvous point as he had camped ten miles to the northeast and had failed to inform Reynolds of his new location.

Reynolds had captured a large number of Cheyenne ponies but they soon recaptured them during a snowstorm early on the morning of March 18, as the exhausted guards were too fatigued to be attentive.  Later that day Reynolds command rejoined Crook's.  The column returned to Fort Fetterman on March 26.

Colonel Reynolds was accused of dereliction of duty for failing to properly support the first charge with his whole command; for burning the captured supplies, food, blankets, buffalo robes, and ammunition instead of keeping them; and for losing the 800 captured ponies. He was court-martialled at Ft. D. A. Russell that following January and found guilty, receiving the sentence of suspension from rank and command for one year.  President Grant, remitted the sentence, but Reynolds never served again. He retired on disability leave on June 25, 1877, exactly one year after the Battle of Little Bighorn.  He is, however, remembered in the form of a street name in Laramie.  I once rented a house on that street.

1887    The Colorado, Wyoming & Eastern Railroad incorporates.  Attribution:  On This Day.

1890   The Sundance Hose Company #1, a fire company (fire department) held "grand dance".  Whether coincidence or not, late 19th and early 20th Century fire departments and police departments were heavily Irish in many US localities, although I would not have expected that to be the case in Sundance. Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.

1915  Gale McGee born in Lincoln, Nebraska.  He was Wyoming's Senator from 1959 to 1977.  He was later Ambassador to the Organization of American States.  McGee was a popular U.S. Senator and it is often noted that he was a surprisingly liberal politician from a state that had become quite conservative.  It was noted by some that his votes grew more conservative towards election time.

He was defeated in his final run by Malcolm Wallop, which has often been a subject of debate in Wyoming.  At the time, the national press oddly associated it with his support for the Vietnam War, which was almost undoubtedly unrelated to his defeat.  Wallop, for his part, ran a brilliant campaign featuring a television add with a cowboy burdened with a porta potty on his horse, symbolizing being weighted down by Federal regulations, indicating a theme that would be prevalent in Wyoming campaigns ever since that date.  Most savvy local commentators, however, have noted that McGee simply did not campaign, and the suspicion is that he did not really wish to retain the office any longer.

McGee was a history professor in terms of his occupation.

1916:  The Punitive Expedition: Congruess authorizes the expedition. March 17, 1916


While it was, in fact, already on, on this day Congress authorized military action in Mexico "for the sole purpose of apprehending and punishing the lawless bands of armed me" who had raided into the United States. 
 

 The Punitive Expedtion: Forces reach Colonia Dublán
 



The U.S. Army's 2nd Provisional Cavalry Brigade reaches Colonia Dublán where the U.S. Army establishes its main base of operations for the Punitive Expedition.  The town was 52 miles south of the border and was a Mormon colony in Mexico.


1917  The Cheyenne State Leader for March 17, 1917. Shades of the Spanish American War
During the Spanish American War Wyoming was strongly associated with volunteer cavalry.  The 2nd U.S. Volunteer Cavalry, Torrey's Rough Riders, to be specific.


The story of the 2nd is disappointing.  A really early effort along the same lines as the famous 1st US Volunteer Cavalry, the much more famous Rough Riders associated with Theodore Roosevelt, Torrey's unit never saw combat. Which isn't to say that it didn't see casualties.  The unit was involved in a terrible railroad accident on the way to to Florida resulting in loss of life to men of the unit.  Partially because of that, it never deployed.

Indeed no Wyoming volunteers or militiamen saw action in Cuba, but Wyoming's National Guard units, recruited during the war in part, much like the National Guard units raised during the Punitive Expedition, saw action in the Philippines.  Those units, like the ones raised and deployed in the Punitive Expedition, were infantry, however.  They did serve very well.

Well, cavalry is more glamorous, without a doubt, and even though the Wyoming National Guard had just come home, the looming entry of the United States into World War One, which was appearing to be increasingly certain, was causing thoughts to return of the glamorous idea of raising a volunteer cavalry unit.  Major Andersen, the Adjutant General of the Wyoming National Guard, was backing just such and idea and touring the state to try to get it rolling.

Cavalry saw a lot more action in World War One than people imagine.  And Wyoming was a natural for cavalry really.  Given the small population of the state Andersen surely knew that any infantry units provided to a mobilized Army for deployment to France would simply be swallowed up into other units.  Cavalry had a better chance of remaining distinct and intact, so the idea had some merit, in spite of the excessively romantic way that it must appear, reading it now.

Which isn't to say, frankly, that all the boys "from the border" who had just returned would have been horsemen. Far from it. The idea that every Wyomingite knew how to ride at the time is just flat out false.  Young men with little horse experience must have been cringing a bit at the thought of being converted to cavalry.

1924  Work began on a dial telephone system at Guernsey. 

1963  Dedication of St. Patrick's Parish in Casper






St. Patrick's Catholic Church in Casper Wyoming was completed in 1962. The church came about due to the expansion of Casper in the 1950s, and this church is the newest of the three Roman Catholic churches in Casper. Unlike Our Lady of Fatiima, which represented an expansion to the west side of Casper, this church is located in east Casper.

Plans for the church commenced in 1955. Like Our Lady of Fatima, a school was constructed on the site but was never used as a regular grade school. The church is also the largest of the three Catholic churches in Casper, having a very large interior.

1989  Dick Cheney confirmed as Secretary of the Defense. Attribution:  On This Day.

1992  Combined Special Session of the Legislature concludes.

1997  Ranch A added to the National Registry of Historic Places.   

_______________________________________________________________________________

Sa lá atá inniu i Lá Fhéile Pádraig. Tagann an lá feat ar chothrom a bháis i Sabhall, Éire, sa bhliain 461 493.

Naomh Pádraig Is é an pátrún ar Éirinn Wyoming pobal réasúnta mór na Gaeilge leis an nGaeilge a bheith suntasach sa tionscal ranching go háirithe go maith i do na haois lár an 20ú. Tá beagnach gach réigiún de na stáit a bhí RANCHERS na hÉireann le ranches Gaeilge go leor a bheith bunaithe i haois déanach 19ú agus 20ú haois go luath. Éireannaigh bhí chun tosaigh sa dá an eallach agus tionscail caorach.

I roinnt pobail aithníodh an lá ag páirtithe ceiliúrtha sa phobal na hÉireann agus in eagraíochtaí a bhaineann leo. I Casper, mar shampla, d'óstáil an Ridirí Columbus páirtí Lá Fhéile Pádraig ar feadh blianta fada. Tá sé seo níos lú an cás lá atá inniu ann, ach na hÉireannaigh i Wyoming atá fós mar chuid de na stáit oidhreacht chultúrtha.

Wyomingites Meiriceánach Gaeilge figured go suntasach i réimsí eile chomh maith, agus chuir go háirithe le polaitíocht agus dlí sa stát. Wyoming tar éis cur ar cheann Gael-Mheiriceánach, Mike Sullivan, an Ambassadorship go hÉirinn. Ba é an iar-Ghobharnóir Sullivan Ambasadóir na hÉireann le linn na Riarachán Clinton.

1863 Thomas Francis Meagher, eclectic Gaeilge réabhlóideach agus ginearálta na Nua-Eabhrac oibrithe deonacha i rith an Chogaidh Chathartha, a bheadh ​​ag dul níos déanaí ar a bheith Gobharnóir Críche de Montana (agus ar deireadh thiar a bheadh ​​caillte i an Abhainn Missouri nuair a thit sé os a chionn, cé go tinn, ar a bhfuil misean de do airm tine a fháil don mhílíste Montana), d'óstáil ceiliúradh le Pádraig as a chuid ordú.


 
 
 


1869 oifig an phoist Carbóin bunaithe. Attribution: Wyoming Stát Cumann Staire.

1876 ​​Gen Crook ruathair Cheyenne agus Oglala campaí Sioux i g-Cath Púdar Abhainn, i Montana. Na coinníollacha an fheachtais a bhí grueling agus an aimsir thit-40f le linn an fheachtais. Bhí tógtha Crook leis an réimse ó Ft. Fetterman ar 1 Márta agus mháirseáil ó thuaidh. Coinníollacha Blizzard mhoilligh a máirseáil. Ar Márta 16 roinnte Crook a ordú a sheoladh mar chuid de sé ar shiúl faoi cheannas Col John J. Reynolds, tar éis rian Indiach, agus le ceann amháin ciondálacha lá. Go gairid roimh breacadh an lae ar 17 Márta a gasóga suite i sráidbhaile mór Indiach ar bhruach thiar den Abhainn Púdar. Ba é an campa Cheyenne 600 600 go 1,000 troigh faoi bhun na saighdiúirí, a bhí ar ardchlár ard. Reynolds faoi stiúir a chuid fear agus capaill síos Bluffs chun ionsaí, ach amháin le deacracht mhór mar gheall ar an tír-raon .. D'ordaigh sé K Cuideachta a dhéanamh ar chúiseamh le piostail tharraingt tríd an sráidbhaile, ach theip air chun tacú leis an ionsaí leis an chuid eile dá ordú, agus na laochra éalaigh go tapa ar an Bluffs ar an taobh thuaidh, áit a raked siad an t-aonad leis an tine, ag ceadú an mná i leanaí i gcampa a dhéanamh a n-éalú, agus go luath sráidbhaile Sioux a bhí in aice láimhe páirteach. D'fhág siad, áfach, go leor de arm tine, armlón, agus bia.Faoi 09:00, bhí Reynolds seilbh iomlán ar an sráidbhaile tréigthe agus d'ordaigh sé scriosadh é. Tharraing sé ansin 20 míle ó dheas ar bhéal na Lodge Pole Creek, áit a raibh sé aontú athuair Crook Ginearálta. An sráidbhaile agus soláthairtí deacair chun é a dhó agus an lón lámhaigh mar thoradh air exploding bhí le bheith ina guais do na trúpaí. Faoi 14:30 thosaigh an t-ordú a tharraingt siar go Lodge Pol Creek, teacht ar 09:00, i riocht mór ídithe. Rinneadh an tarraingt siar ar bhealach beagán hasty agus Reynolds fhág triúr troopers marbh a bhí mutilated ina dhiaidh sin ag an Indians comhairimh. Ní raibh Crook ag an bpointe rendezvous a bunaíodh mar a bhí sé camped deich míle soir ó thuaidh agus gur chlis ar an eolas Reynolds a suíomh nua.Bhí a gabhadh Reynolds le líon mór de capaillíní Cheyenne ach athghabháil siad go luath orthu le linn snowstorm go luath ar maidin an 18 Márta, de réir mar na gardaí ídithe bhí fatigued ró a bheith aireach. Níos déanaí an lá i ndiaidh teacht Reynolds ordú Crook ar. An colún ar ais chuig Fort Fetterman ar 26 Márta.Cuireadh ina leith Colonel Reynolds de dhearóiliú na dleachta toisc gur theip chun tacú i gceart leis an táille den chéad uair lena ordú iomlán; chun dhó na soláthairtí a gabhadh, bia, blankets, róbaí buabhall, agus armlón ionad iad a choinneáil, agus a chailleadh an 800 capaillíní a gabhadh. Bhí sé chúirt-martialled ag Ft. DA Russell, tar éis mí Eanáir agus fuarthas ciontach, a fhaigheann an phianbhreith ar fionraí ó rang agus orduithe ar feadh bliana. Uachtarán Grant, loghadh na pianbhreithe, ach Reynolds riamh sheirbheáil arís. D'éirigh sé ar saoire míchumais ar 25 Meith, 1877, go díreach bliain amháin tar éis Cath Little Bighorn. Tá sé, áfach, cuimhne i bhfoirm d'ainm sráide i Laramie. Cíos mé uair amháin sa teach ar an tsráid.Ionchorpraíonn 1887 An Railroad Colorado, Wyoming agus an Oirthir. Attribution: On This Day.


1890 an Chuideachta Hose Sundance # 1, cuideachta dóiteáin (tine roinn) i seilbh "grand rince". Cibé chomhtharlú nó nach bhfuil, a bhí ranna 19ú agus go luath ranna dóiteáin an 20ú hAois agus póilíní go mór Gaeilge i gceantair US go leor, cé go ní ba mhaith liom a bheith ag súil go a bheidh an cás i Sundance. Attribution: Wyoming Stát Cumann Staire.


1915 Gale McGee a rugadh i Lincoln, Nebraska. Bhí sé Seanadóir Wyoming ar 1959-1977. Bhí sé ina dhiaidh sin Ambasadóir leis an Eagraíocht na Stát Mheiriceá. Ba McGee ar tóir Seanadóir na Stát Aontaithe agus tá sé faoi deara go minic go raibh sé ina polaiteoir ionadh liobrálach ó stát a tháinig chun bheith go leor coimeádach. Tugadh faoi deara ag roinnt gur fhás sé níos mó vótaí coimeádach i dtreo an toghcháin.Briseadh sé ina rith deiridh ag Malcolm Wallop, a bhí go minic ábhar díospóireachta i Wyoming. Ag an am, an phreas náisiúnta a bhaineann oddly sé a thacaíocht don Dara Cogadh Vítneam, a bhí beagnach gan amhras nach mbaineann le ar a defeat. Wallop, le haghaidh a chuid, feachtas iontach featuring teilifíse a chur le cowboy burdened le potty Porta ar a chapall, symbolizing á ualú síos le rialacháin Chónaidhme, rud a léiríonn an téama a bheadh ​​forleithne i bhfeachtais Wyoming riamh ón dáta sin. Tráchtairí an chuid is mó savvy áitiúla, áfach, faoi deara go McGee ní raibh ach feachtas, agus is é an t-amhras nach raibh sé ag iarraidh i ndáiríre chun an oifig ar bith níos faide.


Ba McGee ina ollamh staire ó thaobh a shlí bheatha.


1924 Cuireadh tús le hobair ar chóras teileafóin a dhiailiú ag Guernsey.


1963 Tiomnú Pharóiste Naomh Pádraig i Casper.


1989 Dick Cheney deimhnithe mar Rúnaí an Defense. Attribution: On This Day.

Críochnaíonn 


1992 Seisiún Speisialta Comhcheangailte an reachtas.

1997 feirm A leis an gClárlann Náisiúnta na Áiteanna Stairiúla.